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Table 4 Reporting of Patient Characteristics and Efforts to Assess and Control Confounding

From: Assessing observational studies of medical treatments

  Quinidine (Afib) (n = 6) Trial of Labor (Breech) (n = 6) Colposuspension 1 (Incontinence) (n = 6) Colposuspension 2 (Incontinence) (n = 4) Early Discharge (Childbirth) (n = 4) Hip Screw (Hip Fx) (n = 5) Local Anesthesia (CEA) (n = 11) HSG (Infertility) (n = 6)
Patient Characterization*         
  A = 4 A = 3 A = 5 A = 3 A = 0 A = 3 A = 7 A = 1
  B = 2 B = 3 B = 1 B = 1 B = 3 B = 1 B = 4 B = 3
  C = 0 C = 0 C = 0 C = 0 C = 1 C = 1 C = 0 C = 0
  D = 0 D = 0 D = 0 D = 0 D = 0 D = 0 D = 0 D = 2
Treatment Selection         
  A = 0 A = 0 A = 0 A = 0 A = 1 A = 1 A = 5 A = 3
  B = 0 B = 0 B = 0 B = 0 B = 1 B = 0 B = 3 B = 0
  C = 0 C = 6 C = 5 C = 4 C = 2 C = 0 C = 1 C = 1
  D = 6 D = 0 D = 1 D = 0 D = 0 D = 4 D = 2 D = 2
Comparison of risk factors*         
  A = 0 A = 2 A = 5 A = 3 A = 0 A = 1 A = 5 A = 1
  B = 3 B = 3 B = 1 B = 0 B = 3 B = 2 B = 6 B = 2
  C = 0 C = 1 C = 0 C = 0 C = 1 C = 0 C = 0 C = 0
  D = 3 D = 0 D = 0 D = 1 D = 0 D = 2 D = 0 D = 3
Statistical Adjustment‡         
A A = 0 A = 0 A = 0 A = 0 A = 1 A = 0 A = 1 A = 0
B B = 1 B = 3 B = 1 B = 2 B = 0 B = 2 B = 0 B = 0
C C = 5 C = 3 C = 5 C = 2 C = 3 C = 3 C = 10 C = 6
  1. Afib = Atrial fibrillation
  2. Hip Fx = Hip Fracture
  3. CEA = Carotid Endarterectomy
  4. HSG = Hysterosalpingography
  5. * Characterizations or comparisons were given an 'A' if they included least one element in each of the following categories: demographics, medical history, and clinical assessment. They were given a 'B' if they included one medical history or clinical assessment variable, a 'C' if they included one demographic variable, and a 'D' if there were no characterization or comparisons.
  6. Treatment selection methods were given an 'A' if they probably reduced confounding, a 'B' if the effect on confounding was uncertain, a 'C' if confounding was probably increased, and a 'D' if they were not described.
  7. † Statistical adjustment was given an 'A' for using multiple regression, 'B' for using stratification, and 'C' for no adjustment.