
Quinidine (Afib) (n = 6)

Trial of Labor (Breech) (n = 6)

Colposuspension 1 (Incontinence) (n = 6)

Colposuspension 2 (Incontinence) (n = 4)

Early Discharge (Childbirth) (n = 4)

Hip Screw (Hip Fx) (n = 5)

Local Anesthesia (CEA) (n = 11)

HSG (Infertility) (n = 6)


Patient Characterization*
        

A = 4

A = 3

A = 5

A = 3

A = 0

A = 3

A = 7

A = 1


B = 2

B = 3

B = 1

B = 1

B = 3

B = 1

B = 4

B = 3


C = 0

C = 0

C = 0

C = 0

C = 1

C = 1

C = 0

C = 0


D = 0

D = 0

D = 0

D = 0

D = 0

D = 0

D = 0

D = 2

Treatment Selection↖         

A = 0

A = 0

A = 0

A = 0

A = 1

A = 1

A = 5

A = 3


B = 0

B = 0

B = 0

B = 0

B = 1

B = 0

B = 3

B = 0


C = 0

C = 6

C = 5

C = 4

C = 2

C = 0

C = 1

C = 1


D = 6

D = 0

D = 1

D = 0

D = 0

D = 4

D = 2

D = 2

Comparison of risk factors*
        

A = 0

A = 2

A = 5

A = 3

A = 0

A = 1

A = 5

A = 1


B = 3

B = 3

B = 1

B = 0

B = 3

B = 2

B = 6

B = 2


C = 0

C = 1

C = 0

C = 0

C = 1

C = 0

C = 0

C = 0


D = 3

D = 0

D = 0

D = 1

D = 0

D = 2

D = 0

D = 3

Statistical Adjustment‡
        
A

A = 0

A = 0

A = 0

A = 0

A = 1

A = 0

A = 1

A = 0

B

B = 1

B = 3

B = 1

B = 2

B = 0

B = 2

B = 0

B = 0

C

C = 5

C = 3

C = 5

C = 2

C = 3

C = 3

C = 10

C = 6

 Afib = Atrial fibrillation
 Hip Fx = Hip Fracture
 CEA = Carotid Endarterectomy
 HSG = Hysterosalpingography
 * Characterizations or comparisons were given an 'A' if they included least one element in each of the following categories: demographics, medical history, and clinical assessment. They were given a 'B' if they included one medical history or clinical assessment variable, a 'C' if they included one demographic variable, and a 'D' if there were no characterization or comparisons.
 ↖ Treatment selection methods were given an 'A' if they probably reduced confounding, a 'B' if the effect on confounding was uncertain, a 'C' if confounding was probably increased, and a 'D' if they were not described.
 † Statistical adjustment was given an 'A' for using multiple regression, 'B' for using stratification, and 'C' for no adjustment.