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Table 2 The impact of different health environments and the phases of population mobility

From: The basic principles of migration health: Population mobility and gaps in disease prevalence

Occurrence Examples Consequence at Destination
Pre-departure existing medical condition - prevalence of endemic disease
- level of development
- access to care
- availability of care
Arriving population displays health indicators of origin:
• Differing incidence and prevalence of illness
• Differences in awareness of and use of healthcare services:
• preventive
• promotional
• diagnostic
• therapeutic
Health impacts during migration - trauma (physical-psychosocial)
- deprivation
- violence
- exposure
- injury
Some populations display greater prevalence of illness resulting from torture, trauma, abuse and exposure
• Refugees
• Refugee claimants or asylum seekers
• Trafficked/smuggled migrants
Health impacts arising after arrival administrative/legal limits
- poverty
- language culture
- occupational risks
Awareness of and use of healthcare services in migrant populations may be limited by immigration status, poverty, language and culture
Working conditions may be associated with health risks:
• Migrant agricultural labor
• Commercial sex workers
• Illegal workers
• Trafficked migrants
Health consequences of return travel Health environment at origin may have changed
- health systems improvements or declines
Children born to foreign-born parents have no exposure to risks present at origin
Populations making return journeys to place of origin (particularly children born at new destination) may be at increased risk of disease or illness:
"Visiting friends and relative" travellers
- Locally born children of foreign-born parents