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Figure 2 | Emerging Themes in Epidemiology

Figure 2

From: Simpson's Paradox, Lord's Paradox, and Suppression Effects are the same phenomenon – the reversal paradox

Figure 2

Graphical representation of Simpson's paradox. The two circles on the top of the panel represent subjects with lower (0) and higher birth weight (1), respectively, in the subgroup with current weight > 90 Kg. The two circles on the bottom of the panel represent subjects with lower (0) and higher birth weight (1) in the subgroup with current weight ≤ 90 Kg. The area of the circles is proportional to the sample size of the subgroups they represent. The two dotted lines show that subjects with lower birth weight have a higher risk of developing high blood pressure in each current weight subgroups. However, as a whole group, subjects with lower birth weight have a lower risk of developing high blood pressure (the black solid line).

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