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Table 3 Simple and multiple regression models for simulated hypothetical data on birth weight (BW), blood pressure (BP), and current body weight (CW); the dependent variable in all three models is BP.

From: Simpson's Paradox, Lord's Paradox, and Suppression Effects are the same phenomenon – the reversal paradox

Model Regression Coefficients (Standard Errors) Standardised Coefficients P-values R 2
1 Intercept 123.258 (1.981)   (< 0.001) 0.011
  Birth weight 1.861 (0.556) -0.105 0.001  
2 Intercept 98.173 (1.755)   (< 0.001) 0.251
  Current weight 0.382 (0.021) 0.501 < 0.001  
3 Intercept 104.330 (1.948)   (< 0.001) 0.283
  Birth weight -3.708 (0.553) -0.210 < 0.001  
  Current Weight 0.465 (0.024) 0.610 < 0.001  
  1. It is irrelevant to formally test the intercept for statistical significance in this instance.