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Table 6 Household characteristics after the armed conflict in Côte d'Ivoire (second survey, late 2003/early 2004) and households' socioeconomic fate during the armed conflict.

From: Effect of an armed conflict on relative socioeconomic position of rural households: case study from western Côte d'Ivoire

Characteristics Socioeconomic fate  
  'Worse off' 'Even' 'Better off' p-value
Head of household (% of households with the same socioeconomic fate)
   Sex: male 85.7 87.8 91.7  
   Sex: female 14.3 12.2 8.3 0.887*
   Education: no 71.4 60.3 50.0  
   Education: primary 28.6 24.4 41.7  
   Education: higher 0.0 15.4 8.3 0.390*
   Occupation: farmer 100.0 96.2 91.7  
   Occupation: merchant 0.0 3.2 8.3  
   Occupation: retiree 0.0 0.0 0.0  
   Occupation: teacher 0.0 0.0 0.0  
   Occupation: others 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.391*
Household composition (averages based on counts)
   Average no. of inhabitants 8.6 9.0 8.9 0.995**
   Average no. of males 4.9 4.6 4.0 0.695**
   Average no. children (< 16 years) 5.5 4.5 6.6 0.502**
Accessibility (% of households with the same socioeconomic fate)
   Gravel road 7.1 35.3 25.0  
   Minor road 50.0 26.3 33.3  
   Main road 42.9 38.5 41.7 0.162*
Located in village with following economic activities (% of households with the same socioeconomic fate)
   Subsistence farming 100.0 100.0 100.0 1.000*
   Agricultural production 100.0 100.0 100.0 1.000*
   Trade 42.9 60.9 66.7 0.380*
   Fishing 57.1 39.1 33.3 0.380*
   Wood processing 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.000*
   Artisanry 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.000*
Migrational change during the armed conflict (% of households with the same socioeconomic fate)
   < 0 21.4 24.4 50.0  
   0 64.3 64.1 41.7  
   > 0 14.3 11.5 8.3 0.383*
Natural population change during the armed conflict (% of households with the same socioeconomic fate)
   Births: 0 78.6 83.3 83.3  
   Births: 1 21.4 13.5 16.7  
   Births: 2 0.0 3.2 0.0 0.812*
   Deaths: 0 64.3 62.8 75.0  
   Deaths: 1 28.6 24.4 25.0  
   Deaths: >1 7.1 12.8 0.0 0.835*
Heavy cases of illness during the armed conflict (% of households with the same socioeconomic fate)
   0 21.4 37.8 41.7  
   1 28.6 33.3 16.7  
   > 1 50.0 28.8 41.7 0.376*
Reported problems during the armed conflict (% of households with the same socioeconomic fate)
   Socioeconomic difficulty 50.0 72.4 83.3 0.134*
   Health-related problems 21.4 52.6 25.0 0.022*#
   IDPs/refugees 0.0 10.9 8.3 0.568*
   Public services interrupted 0.0 12.8 33.3 0.050*#
   Lack of food 14.3 26.9 75.0 0.001*#
   Insecurity and threats 0.0 12.8 0.0 0.285*
  1. * Based on Fisher's exact test
  2. ** Based on Kruskal-Wallis test
  3. # Significant at 95% significance level