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Table 4 Multivariate Analysis of Relative Survival of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health 1921-26 Cohort, 1996-2008.

From: Relative survival: a useful tool to assess generalisability in longitudinal studies of health in older persons

  Hazard Ratio* 95% Confidence Limits
Item   Lower Upper
Smoking Status    
Never-smoker (Ref) 1.00   
Ex-smoker 1.27 1.16 1.38
Current smoker 1.84 1.61 2.10
Marital Status    
Partnered (Ref) 1.00   
Separated/Divorced 1.09 0.92 1.30
Widowed 1.10 1.01 1.20
Never married 1.36 1.08 1.72
Country of Birth    
Australian born (Ref) 1.00   
Other English Speaking 1.02 0.90 1.15
Europe 0.85 0.73 1.00
Asia 0.64 0.42 0.97
Other 0.38 0.20 0.74
Highest Educational Qualification    
No Higher Qualification (Ref) 1.00   
Trade/Apprentice Certificate/Diploma 0.97 0.85 1.11
University 0.86 0.68 1.08
Body Mass Index (BMI) Group    
Underweight, BMI < 18.5 1.66 1.39 1.97
Healthy weight, 18.5 ≤ BMI < 25 (Ref) 1.00   
Overweight, 25 ≤ BMI < 30 0.83 0.76 0.91
Obese, 30 ≤ BMI 0.96 0.85 1.08
Self Rated Health    
Excellent (Ref) 1.00   
Very good 1.10 0.88 1.37
Good 1.42 1.14 1.75
Fair 2.42 1.95 3.00
Poor 4.86 3.80 6.22
Physical Activity    
None 1.60 1.44 1.78
Low 1.04 0.93 1.17
Moderate (Ref) 1.00   
High 1.04 0.89 1.20
State or Territory of Residence    
New South Wales (Ref) 1.00   
Australian Capital Territory 0.88 0.51 1.53
Queensland 1.09 0.97 1.22
South Australia 1.09 0.94 1.26
Tasmania 1.06 0.86 1.30
Victoria 1.13 1.01 1.25
Western Australia 1.07 0.90 1.26
Accessibility/Remoteness Index (ARIA)    
1. Highly Accessible (Ref) 1.00   
2. Accessible 1.10 0.99 1.21
3. Moderately Accessible 1.18 1.00 1.39
4. Remote, Very Remote 1.18 0.85 1.64
Age at Survey 1 (years)    
70 (Ref) 1.00   
71 1.07 0.93 1.23
72 0.98 0.85 1.12
73 0.92 0.80 1.06
74 0.91 0.79 1.05
75 0.73 0.59 0.90
  1. * Hazard ratios greater than one indicates higher mortality relative to the reference category while ratios less than one indicate lower mortality;