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Table 4 Effects of imputing missing data

From: Development of an international scale of socio-economic position based on household assets

Error 5 % imputed 10 % imputed 25 % imputed
N (%) N (%) N (%)
−4 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.0)
−3 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 17 (0.2)
−2 6 (0.1) 27 (0.4) 126 (1.8)
−1 225 (3.2) 437 (6.3) 893 (12.8)
0 6423 (91.9) 5920 (84.7) 4691 (67.1)
1 316 (4.5) 560 (8.0) 1042 (14.9)
2 16 (0.2) 36 (0.5) 178 (2.5)
3 0 (0.0) 6 (0.1) 32 (0.5)
4 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 6 (0.1)
Total 6986 (100.0) 6986 (100.0) 6986 (100.0)
Number of respondents with ≥1 imputed response 2869 (41.1) 4621 (66.1) 6583 (94.2)
Number of respondents with error within ±1 6964 (99.7) 6917 (99.0) 6626 (94.8)
  1. Errors in Mokken scale scores after removing a percentage of the responses for each asset at random and then re-imputing the data
  2. Error was defined as the difference between the score using imputed data and the score using the original, observed data. The number and percentage of respondents with different magnitudes and directions of error are shown