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Table 1 Characteristics of the respondents in the HaBIDS study by survey design group

From: Comparison of response patterns in different survey designs: a longitudinal panel with mixed-mode and online-only design

  Mixed-mode group [na (%)] Online-only group [na (%)] p valueb Within mixed-mode
Paper-and-pencil [na (%)] Online [na (%)] p valuec
N = 1110 N = 482 N = 620 N = 490
Sex    0.71    <0.001
 Female 683 (61.6) 292 (60.6)   417 (67.4) 266 (54.3)  
 Male 426 (38.4) 190 (39.4)   202 (32.6) 224 (45.7)  
Age at baseline (March 2014), median (IQR) 47 (34–57) 50 (39–59) 0.009d 50 (36–60) 44 (32–53) <0.001e
Marital status [na (%)]    0.04    0.15
 Married 656 (59.4) 298 (64.6)   363 (58.7) 293 (60.3)  
 Unmarried 333 (30.2) 110 (23.9)   181 (29.3) 152 (31.3)  
 Other (divorced, widowed) 115 (10.4) 53 (11.5)   74 (12.0) 41 (8.4)  
Highest completed educational level    0.67    <0.001
 Lower secondary education or apprenticeship 336 (30.4) 139 (30.1)   229 (36.9) 107 (22.0)  
 Still at upper secondary school 25 (2.3) 10 (2.2)   21 (3.4) 4 (0.8)  
 University entrance qualification (upper secondary education or vocational school) 289 (26.1) 134 (29.0)   152 (24.5) 137 (28.1)  
 University degree 457 (41.3) 179 (38.7)   218 (35.2) 239 (49.1)  
Access to the Internet    0.008    <0.001
 Yes 1068 (96.8) 451 (99.1)   584 (94.5) 484 (99.8)  
 No 35 (3.2) 4 (0.9)   34 (5.5) 1 (0.2)  
  1. aDifferences to total N due to missing values, proportions excluding missing values
  2. bχ2 test comparing mixed-mode design group in total with online-only design group (missing values were not considered)
  3. cχ2 test comparing paper mode with online mode (missing values were not considered)
  4. dWilcoxon rank-sum test comparing mixed-mode design group in total with online-only design group
  5. eWilcoxon rank-sum test comparing paper mode with online mode