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Table 3 Prevalence, odds of stunting (length-for-age z score < − 2) among children born preterm compared to term-born children, and the population attributable risk of stunting due to preterm birth, estimated using postnatal or gestational age-corrected age from birth to the 48-month follow-up visit

From: Effect of correcting for gestational age at birth on population prevalence of early childhood undernutrition

Follow-up visita N Overall stunted Term-born children (≥ 370/7 weeks) Preterm-born children (< 370/7 weeks) Odds of stunting among preterm versus term-born children % Population attributable riskd
n (%) Pc n Stunted n (%) n Stunted n (%) OR (95% CI)
Birthb
 WHO-GS, postnatal age all 4066 473 (11.6) < 0.001 3610 240 (6.65) 456 233 (51.1) 14.7 (11.7, 18.4) 42.9
 IG-NS and IG-VPBR, CA all 4066 337 (8.29)   3610 290 (8.03) 456 47 (10.3) 1.32 (0.95, 1.82) 3.08
3 months
 WHO-GS, postnatal age all 3859e 299 (7.75) < 0.001 3444 166 (4.82) 415 133 (32.0) 9.31 (7.19, 12.1) 37.8
 WHO-GS, CA for CBP, postnatal age for TBC 3859e 195 (5.05)   3444 166 (4.82) 415 29 (6.99) 1.48 (0.99, 2.23) 4.61
12 months
 WHO-GS, postnatal age all 3801 221 (5.81) < 0.001 3390 160 (4.7) 411 61 (14.8) 3.52 (2.57, 4.82) 18.8
 WHO-GS, CA for CBP, postnatal age for TBC 3801 191 (5.02)   3390 160 (4.7) 411 31 (7.54) 1.65 (1.11, 2.45) 6.07
24 months
 WHO-GS, postnatal age all 3739 181 (4.84) 0.002 3324 132 (4.0) 415 49 (11.8) 3.24 (2.29, 4.57) 18.0
 WHO-GS, CA for CBP, postnatal age for TBC 3739 168 (4.49)   3324 132 (4.0) 415 36 (8.67) 2.30 (1.57, 3.37) 11.6
48 months
 WHO-GS, postnatal age all 3609 128 (3.55) 0.03 3214 98 (3.1) 395 30 (7.60) 2.61 (1.71, 3.99) 14.0
 WHO-GS, CA for CBP, postnatal age for TBC 3609 122 (3.38)   3214 98 (3.1) 395 24 (6.08) 2.06 (1.30, 3.26) 9.80
  1. CA gestational age-corrected age, CBP children born preterm, CI confidence interval, GA gestational age, IG-NS INTERGROWTH 21st newborn size standards, IG-VPBR INTERGROWTH 21st very preterm size at birth references, OR odds ratio, PAR population attributable risk, TBC term-born children, WHO-GS World Health Organization child growth standards
  2. a Child postnatal age during follow-up visits ranged from: 3 months (± 1 month); 12 months (± 2 months); 24 months (± 2 months); 48 months (± 6 months)
  3. b At birth, the WHO-GS were applied using postnatal age to all infants born at ≥ 240/7 weeks gestational age. For CA strategy, the IG-VPBR were applied to infants born between 240/7 and 326/7 weeks gestational age and the IG-NS were applied to infants born between 330/7 and 430/7 weeks gestational age. The gestational age of infants born at > 430/7 was truncated 430/7 (300 days) to enable application of the IG-NS
  4. cP values from McNemar’s test for difference in paired proportions when using GA-corrected strategy versus ‘WHO-GS, postnatal age all’ (reference)
  5. dProportion of all stunting in the population that is attributable to preterm
  6. eThe WHO-GS could not be applied to two infants who had a corrected age of < 0 at the 3-month visit and therefore were excluded from the ‘WHO-GS, postnatal age all’ strategy as well (inferences were unchanged when these two infants were included)