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Table 4 Prevalence, odds of underweight (weight-for-age z score < − 2) among children born preterm compared to term-born children, and the population attributable risk of underweight due to preterm birth, estimated using postnatal or gestational age-corrected age from birth to the 48-month follow-up visit

From: Effect of correcting for gestational age at birth on population prevalence of early childhood undernutrition

Follow-up visita N Overall underweight Term-born children (≥ 370/7 weeks) Preterm-born children (< 370/7 weeks) Odds of underweight among preterm versus term-born children % Population attributable riskd
n (%) Pc n Underweight n (%) n Underweight n (%) OR (95% CI)
Birthb
 WHO-GS, postnatal age all 4104 284 (6.92) < 0.001 3625 101 (2.79) 479 183 (38.2) 21.6 (16.5, 28.3) 59.7
 IG-NS and IG-VPBR, CA all 4104 151 (3.68)   3625 129 (3.56) 479 22 (4.59) 1.30 (0.82, 2.07) 3.28
3 months
 WHO-GS, postnatal age all 3855e 359 (9.31) < 0.001 3441 220 (6.39) 414 139 (33.6) 7.40 (5.79, 9.46) 31.3
 WHO-GS, CA for CBP, postnatal age for TBC 3855e 254 (6.59)   3441 220 (6.39) 414 34 (8.21) 1.31 (0.90, 1.91) 2.97
12 months
 WHO-GS, postnatal age all 3779 282 (7.46) < 0.001 3368 214 (6.35) 411 68 (16.5) 2.92 (2.18, 3.92) 14.9
 WHO-GS, CA for CBP, postnatal age for TBC 3779 262 (6.93)   3368 214 (6.35) 411 48 (11.7) 1.95 (1.40, 2.71) 8.35
24 months
 WHO-GS, postnatal age all 3734 199 (5.33) 0.03 3319 157 (4.73) 415 42 (10.1) 2.27 (1.59, 3.24) 11.2
 WHO-GS, CA for CBP, postnatal age for TBC 3734 193 (5.17)   3319 157 (4.73) 415 36 (8.67) 1.91 (1.31, 2.79) 8.48
48 months
 WHO-GS, postnatal age all 3612 56 (1.55) 0.24 3216 40 (1.24) 396 16 (4.04) 3.34 (1.85, 6.03) 19.8
 WHO-GS, CA for CBP, postnatal age for TBC 3612 53 (1.47)   3216 40 (1.24) 396 13 (3.28) 2.70 (1.43, 5.08) 15.2
  1. CA gestational age-corrected age, CBP children born preterm, CI confidence interval, GA gestational age, IG-NS INTERGROWTH 21st newborn size standards, IG-VPBR INTERGROWTH 21st very preterm size at birth references, OR odds ratio, PAR population attributable risk, TBC term-born children, WHO-GS World Health Organization child growth standards
  2. aChild postnatal age during follow-up visits ranged from: 3 months (± 1 month); 12 months (± 2 months); 24 months (± 2 months); 48 months (± 6 months)
  3. bAt birth, the WHO-GS were applied using postnatal age to all infants born at ≥ 240/7 weeks gestational age. For CA strategy, the IG-VPBR were applied to infants born between 240/7 and 326/7 weeks gestational age and the IG-NS were applied to infants born between 330/7 and 430/7 weeks gestational age. The gestational age of infants born at > 430/7 was truncated 430/7 (300 days) to enable application of the IG-NS
  4. cP values from McNemar’s test for difference in paired proportions when using GA-corrected strategy versus ‘WHO-GS, postnatal age all’ (reference)
  5. dProportion of all stunting in the population that is attributable to preterm births
  6. eThe WHO-GS could not be applied to two infants who had a corrected age of < 0 at the 3-month visit and therefore were excluded from the ‘WHO-GS, postnatal age all’ strategy as well (inferences were unchanged when these two infants were included)