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Fig. 4 | Emerging Themes in Epidemiology

Fig. 4

From: The contributions and future direction of Program Science in HIV/STI prevention

Fig. 4

Layers of evidence used within Program Science. Empirical evidence is generated in many forms, including program data. Hypotheses are tested using several methods. A key component of Program Science involves syntheses of knowledge across multiple levels and scope, including realist reviews, and the integration of these data and syntheses with mathematical models to project public health impacts on health and costs. For infectious diseases such as HIV and STIs, public health impacts are estimated using transmission dynamics models

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