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Table 1 Adult questionnaire items, origin, type of adaptation, translation and response characteristics

From: Health monitoring among asylum seekers and refugees: a state-wide, cross-sectional, population-based study in Germany

Item no. Origin Variable Adapted or original Type of adaptation Existing or new translation Cognitive pretest % Missing response Bottom/ceiling effect
1 EHIS General health Original Translation x 10.0% None
2 DEGS Health state compared to last year Original Existing (RU, GER, SER, TUR)a Translation (AR, FR, FAR, ALB)   11.4% None
3 EHIS Chronic illness Original Translation x 11.0% None
4 EHIS Limitation due to health problem Adapted Timeframe Translation   15.8%
5 DEGS Pain Original Existing (RU, GER, SER, TUR)a Translation (AR, FR, FAR, ALB)   10.4% None
6 EHIS Existence of ambulatory sensitive conditions Adapted Revised item list Translation   2.7%
7 EHIS Avoidable hospitalisation Adapted Added specification Translation   7.3%
8 EHIS Other hospitalisation Adapted Added specification Translation   6.8%
9 EHIS Hospitalisation frequency Adapted Multiple choice format Translation   12.1%
10 EHIS Alcohol consumption Original Translation   7.8% Bottomg
11 DEGS Smoking Original Existing (RU, GER, SER, TUR)a Translation (AR, FR, FAR, ALB)   5.6% None
12 SCID Medication abuse Original Translation   8.3%
13 EUROHIS-QOL Quality of life Adapted Simplified wording Existing (RU, GER, SER, TUR, AR, FR, FAR)b Translation (ALB) x 7.3% None
14 EUROHIS-QOL Quality of life Original x 8.5% None
15 EUROHIS-QOL Quality of life Original   6.8% None
16 EUROHIS-QOL Quality of life Original x 8.0% None
17 EUROHIS-QOL Quality of life Original x 9.2% None
18 EUROHIS-QOL Quality of life Original x 11.2% None
19 EUROHIS-QOL Quality of life Original   8.0% None
20 EUROHIS-QOL Quality of life Original   6.3% None
21 PHQ2 Depression Original Existing (RU, GER, SER, TUR, AR, FR)c Translation (FAR, ALB)   13.1% None
22 PHQ2 Depression Original   13.1% None
23 GAD2 Generalised anxiety Original Existing (RU, GER, TUR, AR, FR)d Translation (SER, FAR, ALB)   11.9% None
24 GAD2 Generalised anxiety Original   14.0% None
25 EHIS Utilisation of primary, secondary and specialist healthcare services Adapted Added specification Translation x 15.1% (GP) 19.2% (specialist) 20.2% (dentist) 20.9% (psychologist)
26 EHIS Frequency of utilisation of primary, secondary and specialist healthcare services Adapted Added specification Translation   14.1% (GP) 20.6% (specialist) 20.2% (dentist) 23.8% (psychologist)
27 EHIS Prescriptions Original Translation x 9.5%
28 EHIS Out-of-pocket payments for prescriptions Adapted Simplified wording Translation x 27.5%
29 EU-SILC Unmet need primary care Adapted Simplified wording Translation x 16.8%
30 EU-SILC Unmet need primary care reasons Adapted Added answer option Translation x 18.0%
31 EU-SILC Unmet need specialist Adapted Simplified wording Translation   20.4%
32 EU-SILC Unmet need specialist reasons Adapted Added answer options Translation   20.6%
33 DEGS Family doctor Original   Existing (RU, GER, SER, TUR)a translation (AR, FR, FAR, ALB)   11.7%
34 EHIS Utilisation of emergency care Adapted Added specification Translation   8.5%
35 EHIS Frequency of emergency care utilisation Adapted Added specification Translation   11.9%
36 EPF Access to Healthcare Financial burden of care Original Translation x 14.3%
37 DEGS Medical advice Original Existing (RU, GER, SER, TUR)a Translation (AR, FR, FAR, ALB)   16.3%
38 DEGS Medical advice Original Existing (RU, GER, SER, TUR)a Translation (AR, FR, FAR, ALB)   15.8%
39 EPF Access to Healthcare Perceived distance of medical facilities Adapted Added answer option Translation   17.5% (GP) 20.9% (specialist) 12.4% (pharmacy) 17.0% (hospital)
40 WHS Patient-rated quality of care Adapted Added answer option Existing (GER, FR, RU, AR)e Translation (TUR, SER, FAR, ALB) x 17.5% None
41 WHS Patient-rated quality of care Adapted Added answer option x 18.5% None
42 WHS Patient-rated quality of care Adapted Added answer option and specification x 18.9% None
43 WHS Patient-rated quality of care Adapted Added answer option and simplified wording x 21.4% None
44 WHS Patient-rated quality of care Adapted Added answer option x 21.4% None
45 WHS Patient-rated quality of care Adapted Added answer option x 24.3% None
46 WHS Patient-rated quality of care Adapted Added answer option x 19.2% Ceilingg
47 HLS-EU-16 Health literacy Original Existing (GER, AR, FAR)f Translation (FR, RU, TUR, SER, ALB) x 11.4% None
48 HLS-EU-16 Health literacy Original x 14.1% None
49 HLS-EU-16 Health literacy Original x 14.3% None
50 Birth month Translation   12.4%
51 Gender Translation   10.7%
52 Nationality Translation x 9.7%
53 Mother tongue Translation x 7.8%
54 EHIS School education Adapted Simplified language Translation x 14.8%
55 Professional education Translation   15.5%
56 EHIS Labour status Adapted Reduced answer options Translation   19.2%
57 Number of children Translation   10.0%
58 Family status Translation   8.0%
59 Living with partner Translation   14.8%
60 EHIS Social networks Original Translation   11.7%
61 DEGS Household size Adapted Added specification Existing (RU, GER, SER, TUR)a Translation (AR, FR, FAR, ALB)   13.1%
62 DEGS Household income Adapted Reduced answer options Existing (RU, GER, SER, TUR)a Translation (AR, FR, FAR, ALB)   25.2% None
63 Residence status Translation x 20.6%
64 Entry to Germany Translation   16.3%
65 Number of transfers Translation   12.6% None
66 Health insurance card Translation   12.9%
67 MacArthur Scale Subjective social status Adapted Simplified wording, added specification Translation x 30.3% None
68 MacArthur Scale Subjective social status Adapted Simplified wording, added specification Translation x 27.4% None
  1. EHIS European Health Interview Survey, DEGS Study on the Health of Adults in Germany, SCID Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5, EUROHIS-QOL European Health Interview Survey Quality of Life Scale, PHQ2 Patient Health Questionnaire-2, GAD2 Generalised Anxiety Disorder 2, EU-SILC European Survey on Income and Living Conditions, EPF European Patient Foundation, WHS World Health Survey, HLS-EU-16 16-item European Health Literacy Score, AR Arabic, ALB Albanian, FAR Farsi, FR French, GER German, RU Russian, SER Serbian, TUR Turkish
  2. aAll existing translations taken from [46], made available upon request
  3. bAll existing translations taken from [47], publicly available via http://depts.washington.edu/seaqol/WHOQOL-BREF
  4. cGER, FR, RU, SER: [48], publicly available via https://www.phqscreeners.com/; TUR: [49] AR: [50] both made available upon request
  5. dGER, RU, TUR: [51] publicly available via https://www.phqscreeners.com/; FR: [47] AR: [50], both made available upon request
  6. eAll existing translations taken from: [52],made available upon request
  7. fGER: [53] publicly available; AR, FAR: [54] made available upon request
  8. gCorresponding figures can be found in the Additional file 1: Web Appendix