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Table 1 Associations between treatment and status.

From: Simpson’s Paradox is suppression, but Lord’s Paradox is neither: clarification of and correction to Tu, Gunnell, and Gilthorpe (2008)

Association between treatment and status, disregarding sex
 Probability dead.50.50No association
Association between treatment and status for each sex
 Probability dead. association for both male and female
  1. Status coded 0 = alive, 1 = dead; treatment coded 0 = untreated, 1 = treated; sex coded 0 = male, 1 = female