Skip to main content

Table 1 Associations between treatment and status.

From: Simpson’s Paradox is suppression, but Lord’s Paradox is neither: clarification of and correction to Tu, Gunnell, and Gilthorpe (2008)

 UntreatedTreated 
Association between treatment and status, disregarding sex
 Alive620 
 Dead620 
 Total1240 
 Probability dead.50.50No association
 MaleFemale 
UntreatedTreatedUntreatedTreated
Association between treatment and status for each sex
 Alive48212 
 Dead35315 
 Total713527 
 Probability dead.43.38.60.56Negative association for both male and female
  1. Status coded 0 = alive, 1 = dead; treatment coded 0 = untreated, 1 = treated; sex coded 0 = male, 1 = female