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Table 4 Three 2 times 2 contingency tables for the data in Table 1

From: Simpson’s Paradox is suppression, but Lord’s Paradox is neither: clarification of and correction to Tu, Gunnell, and Gilthorpe (2008)

 UntreatedTreated 
Association between treatment and status, disregarding sex
 Alive620 
 Dead620 
 Total1240 
 Probability dead.50.50Difference = 0\(\phi = .00\)
 MaleFemale 
Association between sex and status, disregarding treatment
 Alive1214 
 Dead818 
 Total2032 
 Probability dead.40.56Difference = .16\(\phi = .16\)
Association between sex and treatment, disregarding status
 Untreated75 
 Treated1327 
 Total2032 
 Probability treated.65.84Difference = .19\(\phi = .22\)
  1. Status coded 0 = alive, 1 = dead; treatment coded 0 = untreated, 1 = treated; sex coded 0 = male, 1 = female