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Table 3 comparison of empowerment domains and their structure across survey years following exploratory factor analysis

From: Development of a women’s empowerment index for Tanzania from the demographic and health surveys of 2004–05, 2010, and 2015–16

Domain Measured variables Factor loading by survey year
2004–05 2010 2015–16
Attitudes towards violence Beating justified if the wife goes out without telling husband 0.7946 0.8325 0.8358
Beating justified if the wife neglects the children 0.8241 0.8628 0.8407
Beating justified if the wife argues with husband 0.8084 0.8730 0.8932
Beating justified if the wife refuses to have sex with the husband 0.7631 0.8334 0.8181
Beating justified if the wife burns the food 0.6672 0.6783 0.7115
Decision making The person who usually decides on the respondent’s health care 0.7210 0.7771 0.7325
The person who usually decides on large household purchases 0.7216 0.7891 0.7039
The person who usually decides what to do with money husband earns 0.7493
The person who usually decides on visits to family or relatives 0.7610 0.7953 0.6141
The person who usually decides how to spend the respondent’s earnings 0.4711 0.5504 0.7105
Final say on making household purchases for daily needs 0.7918
Final say on food to be cooked each day 0.5494
Social independence Owns a mobile telephone 0.6817
Frequency of watching television 0.6833 0.7342 0.7173
Frequency of reading newspaper or magazine 0.6909 0.5747 0.6793
Type of earnings from respondent’s work 0.6487 0.6868 0.3888
Educational attainment 0.6248 0.5422
Work for family, others, self 0.5178
Age at critical life events Age of respondent at first birth 0.9256 0.9184 0.9216
Age at first cohabitation 0.9165 0.9244 0.9387
Educational attainment 0.4190
Access to healthcare Getting permission to go 0.7281 0.6541
Getting money needed for treatment 0.5261 0.6146 0.6319
Distance to health facility 0.8249 0.7178 0.7706
Not wanting to go alone 0.6701 0.8204 0.7581
Having to take transport 0.8421
Property ownership Owns a house alone or jointly 0.8183 0.8407 0.8911
Owns land alone or jointly 0.8312 0.8414 0.8737