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  1. The preferred method to evaluate public health interventions delivered at the level of whole communities is the cluster randomised trial (CRT). The practical limitations of CRTs and the need for alternative me...

    Authors: Wolf-Peter Schmidt
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2017 14:9
  2. Multiple imputation has become very popular as a general-purpose method for handling missing data. The validity of multiple-imputation-based analyses relies on the use of an appropriate model to impute the mis...

    Authors: Cattram D. Nguyen, John B. Carlin and Katherine J. Lee
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2017 14:8
  3. In the last decades, Systems Biology (including cancer research) has been driven by technology, statistical modelling and bioinformatics. In this paper we try to bring biological and philosophical thinking ba...

    Authors: Paolo Vineis, Phyllis Illari and Federica Russo
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2017 14:7
  4. In matched-pair cohort studies with censored events, the hazard ratio (HR) may be of main interest. However, it is lesser known in epidemiologic literature that the partial maximum likelihood estimator of a co...

    Authors: Tomohiro Shinozaki, Mohammad Ali Mansournia and Yutaka Matsuyama
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2017 14:6
  5. Advances in healthcare have improved the survival of children with neurological disabilities (ND). Studies in the US have shown that children with ND use a substantial proportion of resources in children’s hos...

    Authors: Jin-Xi Yuan, Marian McGowan, Irene Hadjikoumi and Buddhi Pant
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2017 14:5
  6. Increasing availability of the Internet allows using only online data collection for more epidemiological studies. We compare response patterns in a population-based health survey using two survey designs: mix...

    Authors: Nicole Rübsamen, Manas K. Akmatov, Stefanie Castell, André Karch and Rafael T. Mikolajczyk
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2017 14:4
  7. Obtaining population-level estimates of the incidence and prevalence of dementia is challenging due to under-diagnosis and under-reporting. We investigated the feasibility of using multiple linked datasets and...

    Authors: Michael Waller, Gita D. Mishra and Annette J. Dobson
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2017 14:3
  8. Epidemiology has contributed in many ways to identifying various risk factors for disease and to promoting population health. However, there is a continuing debate about the ability of epidemiology not only to...

    Authors: Mario Bach, Susanne Jordan, Susanne Hartung, Claudia Santos-Hövener and Michael T. Wright
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2017 14:2
  9. There are many examples of physiological processes that follow a circadian cycle and researchers are interested in alternative methods to illustrate and quantify this diurnal variation. Circadian blood pressur...

    Authors: Jamie M. Madden, Xia Li, Patricia M. Kearney, Kate Tilling and Anthony P. Fitzgerald
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2017 14:1
  10. Cluster surveys provide rapid but representative estimates of key nutrition indicators in humanitarian crises. For these surveys, an accurate estimate of the design effect is critical to calculate a sample siz...

    Authors: Erin N. Hulland, Curtis J. Blanton, Eva Z. Leidman and Oleg O. Bilukha
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2016 13:13
  11. Nutritional surveillance remains generally weak and early warning systems are needed in areas with high burden of acute under-nutrition. In order to enhance insight into nutritional surveillance, a community-b...

    Authors: Mathias Altmann, Christophe Fermanian, Boshen Jiao, Chiara Altare, Martin Loada and Mark Myatt
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2016 13:12
  12. Electronic linkage of UK cohorts to routinely collected National Health Service (NHS) records provides virtually complete follow-up for cause-specific hospital admissions and deaths. The reliability of dementi...

    Authors: Anna Brown, Oksana Kirichek, Angela Balkwill, Gillian Reeves, Valerie Beral, Cathie Sudlow, John Gallacher and Jane Green
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2016 13:11
  13. Verbal autopsy (VA) is a widely used technique for assigning causes to non-medically certified deaths using information gathered from a close caregiver. Both operational and cultural factors may cause delays i...

    Authors: Laith Hussain-Alkhateeb, Max Petzold, Mark Collinson, Stephen Tollman, Kathleen Kahn and Peter Byass
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2016 13:10
  14. It is well known that safe delivery in a health facility reduces the risks of maternal and infant mortality resulting from perinatal complications. What is less understood are the factors associated with safe ...

    Authors: Daniel A. Sprague, Caroline Jeffery, Nadine Crossland, Thomas House, Gareth O. Roberts, William Vargas, Joseph Ouma, Stephen K. Lwanga and Joseph J. Valadez
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2016 13:9
  15. Dichotomisation of continuous data has statistical drawbacks such as loss of power but may be useful in epidemiological research to define high risk individuals.

    Authors: Odile Sauzet, Jürgen Breckenkamp, Theda Borde, Silke Brenne, Matthias David, Oliver Razum and Janet L. Peacock
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2016 13:8
  16. Wasting is a major public health issue throughout the developing world. Out of the 6.9 million estimated deaths among children under five annually, over 800,000 deaths (11.6 %) are attributed to wasting. Wasti...

    Authors: Severine Frison, Francesco Checchi, Marko Kerac and Jennifer Nicholas
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2016 13:7
  17. The issue of poor response rates to population surveys has existed for some decades, but few studies have explored methods to improve the response rate in follow-up population cohort studies.

    Authors: Adrian Bauman, Philayrath Phongsavan, Alison Cowle, Emily Banks, Louisa Jorm, Kris Rogers, Bin Jalaludin and Anne Grunseit
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2016 13:6
  18. Multivariable confounder adjustment in comparative studies of newly marketed drugs can be limited by small numbers of exposed patients and even fewer outcomes. Disease risk scores (DRSs) developed in historica...

    Authors: Hiraku Kumamaru, Sebastian Schneeweiss, Robert J. Glynn, Soko Setoguchi and Joshua J. Gagne
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2016 13:5
  19. In 1974 a joint FAO/UNICEF/WHO Expert Committee met to develop methods for nutrition surveillance. There has been much interest and activity in this topic since then, however there is a lack of guidance for pr...

    Authors: Veronica Tuffrey and Andrew Hall
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2016 13:4
  20. The emerging burden of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa threatens the gains made in health by the major international effort to combat infectious diseases. There are few data on distri...

    Authors: Amelia Catharine Crampin, Ndoliwe Kayuni, Alemayehu Amberbir, Crispin Musicha, Olivier Koole, Terence Tafatatha, Keith Branson, Jacqueline Saul, Elenaus Mwaiyeghele, Lawrence Nkhwazi, Amos Phiri, Alison Jane Price, Beatrice Mwagomba, Charles Mwansambo, Shabbar Jaffar and Moffat Joha Nyirenda
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2016 13:3
  21. The obesity epidemic has emerged over the past few decades and is thought to be a result of both genetic and environmental factors. A newly identified factor, the gut microbiota, which is a bacterial ecosystem...

    Authors: Lara R. Dugas, Miles Fuller, Jack Gilbert and Brian T. Layden
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2016 13:2
  22. Childhood growth is a cornerstone of pediatric research. Statistical models need to consider individual trajectories to adequately describe growth outcomes. Specifically, well-defined longitudinal models are e...

    Authors: Laura M. Grajeda, Andrada Ivanescu, Mayuko Saito, Ciprian Crainiceanu, Devan Jaganath, Robert H. Gilman, Jean E. Crabtree, Dermott Kelleher, Lilia Cabrera, Vitaliano Cama and William Checkley
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2016 13:1
  23. Epidemiological analyses of aggregated data are often used to evaluate theoretical health effects of natural disasters. Such analyses are susceptible to confounding by unmeasured differences between the expos...

    Authors: Shannon C. Grabich, Whitney R. Robinson, Stephanie M. Engel, Charles E. Konrad, David B. Richardson and Jennifer A. Horney
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2015 12:19
  24. A subgroup of individuals becomes entrenched in a “revolving door” involving corrections, health, and social welfare services. Little research has investigated the numbers of people that are in frequent contac...

    Authors: Julian M. Somers, Stefanie N. Rezansoff, Akm Moniruzzaman and Carmen Zabarauckas
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2015 12:17
  25. China’s growing population of internal migrants has exceeded 236 million. Driven by rapid development and urbanization, this extreme population mobility creates opportunities for transmission of HIV and sexual...

    Authors: Joshua B. Mendelsohn, Liviana Calzavara, Lucia Light, Ann N. Burchell, Jinma Ren and Laiyi Kang
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2015 12:16
  26. Hantavirus infection is an emerging zoonosis transmitted by wild rodents. In Brazil, high case-fatality rates among humans infected with hantavirus are of serious concern to public health authorities. Appropri...

    Authors: Stefan Vilges de Oliveira, Lidsy Ximenes Fonseca, Keline Medeiros de Araújo Vilges, Fernanda Voietta Pinna Maniglia, Simone Valéria Costa Pereira, Eduardo Pacheco de Caldas, Pedro Luiz Tauil and Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2015 12:15
  27. In 1965, Sir Austin Bradford Hill published nine “viewpoints” to help determine if observed epidemiologic associations are causal. Since then, the “Bradford Hill Criteria” have become the most frequently cited...

    Authors: Kristen M. Fedak, Autumn Bernal, Zachary A. Capshaw and Sherilyn Gross
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2015 12:14
  28. The importance of studying associations between socio-economic position and health has often been highlighted. Previous studies have linked the prevalence and severity of lung disease with national wealth and ...

    Authors: John Townend, Cosetta Minelli, Imed Harrabi, Daniel O. Obaseki, Karima El-Rhazi, Jaymini Patel and Peter Burney
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2015 12:13
  29. Specialised sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in the Netherlands provide STI care for high-risk groups, including female sex workers (FSW), at the clinic and by outreach visiting commercial sex work...

    Authors: Maud M. A. Verscheijden, Petra J. Woestenberg, Hannelore M. Götz, Maaike G. van Veen, Femke D. H. Koedijk and Birgit H. B. van Benthem
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2015 12:12
  30. Statistical inference is commonly said to be inapplicable to complete population studies, such as censuses, due to the absence of sampling variability. Nevertheless, in recent years, studies of whole populatio...

    Authors: Neal Alexander
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2015 12:11
  31. Sedentary behaviour (too much sitting, as distinct from too little exercise) has emerged as a potentially significant public health issue. Analytically, researchers have reported ‘independent’ associations bet...

    Authors: Andrew Page, Geeske Peeters and Dafna Merom
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2015 12:10
  32. The case definition for traumatic brain injury (TBI) often includes ‘unspecified injury to the head’ diagnostic codes. However, research has shown that the inclusion of these codes leads to false positives. As...

    Authors: Vincy Chan, Robert E. Mann, Jason D. Pole and Angela Colantonio
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2015 12:9
  33. Disadvantages have already been pointed out on the use of odds ratio (OR) as a measure of association for designs such as cohort and cross sectional studies, for which relative risk (RR) or prevalence ratio (P...

    Authors: Vanessa Bielefeldt Leotti Torman and Suzi Alves Camey
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2015 12:8
  34. RotaTeq® pentavalent human rotavirus vaccine (RV5) is effective against rotavirus illness and rotavirus-related hospitalizations and death. Effectiveness depends on adherence to the dosing schedule, which incl...

    Authors: Stephan Lanes, Scott C Quinlan, T Christopher Mast, Sander Greenland and Crystal N Holick
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2015 12:5
  35. Lower childhood socioeconomic position is associated with greater risk of adult obesity among women, but not men. Pregnancy-related weight changes may contribute to this gender difference. The objectives of th...

    Authors: Benjamin W Chaffee, Barbara Abrams, Alison K Cohen and David H Rehkopf
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2015 12:4
  36. The risk of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus spreading globally is worrying, given the annual mass gathering of the Hajj and the year-long influx of pilgrims undertaking the Umrah. Based on the inc...

    Authors: Tarek Soliman, Alex R Cook and Richard J Coker
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2015 12:3
  37. Uptake of family planning services in Pakistan has remained slow over the past decade despite a rapid increase in availability and awareness, indicating that social barriers may be preventing uptake. Social ba...

    Authors: Mishal S Khan, Farah Naz Hashmani, Owais Ahmed, Minaal Khan, Sajjad Ahmed, Shershah Syed and Fahad Qazi
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2015 12:2
  38. There is increasing evidence that childhood vaccines have effects that extend beyond their target disease. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of routine childhood vaccines on bacterial carri...

    Authors: Christian Bottomley, Abdoulie Bojang, Peter G Smith, Ousainou Darboe, Martin Antonio, Ebenezer Foster-Nyarko, Beate Kampmann, Brian Greenwood, Umberto D’Alessandro and Anna Roca
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2015 12:1
  39. Aging societies worldwide propose a significant challenge to the model and organisation of the delivery of healthcare services. In developing countries, communicable and non-communicable diseases are affecting...

    Authors: Cesar Henriquez-Camacho, Juan Losa, J Jaime Miranda and Natalie E Cheyne
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2014 11:136
  40. Tuberculosis is a major disease worldwide and most research focus on risk factors for adults, although there is a marked adolescent peak in incidence. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors f...

    Authors: Hilary Stevens, Ricardo AA Ximenes, Odimariles MS Dantas and Laura C Rodrigues
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2014 11:20
  41. Though it has been a focus of the country’s public health surveillance systems since the 1950s, schistosomiasis represents an ongoing public health challenge in China. Parallel, schistosomiasis-specific survei...

    Authors: Song Liang, Changhong Yang, Bo Zhong, Jiagang Guo, Huazhong Li, Elizabeth J Carlton, Matthew C Freeman and Justin V Remais
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2014 11:19
  42. In the literature, different shapes of associations have been found between body mass index (BMI) and mortality and some of the findings were opposite to each other. The association of BMI and mortality in a s...

    Authors: Jianghua He, Qing Yu, Huiquan Zhang and Jonathan D Mahnken
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2014 11:17
  43. In May 2014, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection, with closely related viral genomes, was diagnosed in two Dutch residents, returning from a pilgrimage to Medina and Mecca, Kingdo...

    Authors: Ewout B Fanoy, Marianne AB van der Sande, Marleen Kraaij-Dirkzwager, Kees Dirksen, Marcel Jonges, Wim van der Hoek, Marion PG Koopmans, Douwe van der Werf, Gerard Sonder, Charlie van der Weijden, Jet van der Heuvel, Luc Gelinck, Jolande W Bouwhuis and Arianne B van Gageldonk-Lafeber
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2014 11:16
  44. Oseltamivir has been registered for use as post-exposition prophylaxis (PEP) following exposure to influenza, based on studies among healthy adults. Effectiveness among frail elderly nursing home populations s...

    Authors: Marianne AB van der Sande, Adam Meijer, Fatmagül Şen-Kerpiclik, Remko Enserink, Herman JM Cools, Piet Overduin, José M Ferreira and Marie-José Veldman-Ariessen
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2014 11:13