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  1. Content type: Research article

    The case definition for traumatic brain injury (TBI) often includes ‘unspecified injury to the head’ diagnostic codes. However, research has shown that the inclusion of these codes leads to false positives. As...

    Authors: Vincy Chan, Robert E. Mann, Jason D. Pole and Angela Colantonio

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2015 12:9

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  2. Content type: Methodology

    Disadvantages have already been pointed out on the use of odds ratio (OR) as a measure of association for designs such as cohort and cross sectional studies, for which relative risk (RR) or prevalence ratio (P...

    Authors: Vanessa Bielefeldt Leotti Torman and Suzi Alves Camey

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2015 12:8

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  3. Content type: Research article

    RotaTeq® pentavalent human rotavirus vaccine (RV5) is effective against rotavirus illness and rotavirus-related hospitalizations and death. Effectiveness depends on adherence to the dosing schedule, which incl...

    Authors: Stephan Lanes, Scott C Quinlan, T Christopher Mast, Sander Greenland and Crystal N Holick

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2015 12:5

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Lower childhood socioeconomic position is associated with greater risk of adult obesity among women, but not men. Pregnancy-related weight changes may contribute to this gender difference. The objectives of th...

    Authors: Benjamin W Chaffee, Barbara Abrams, Alison K Cohen and David H Rehkopf

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2015 12:4

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  5. Content type: Commentary

    The risk of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus spreading globally is worrying, given the annual mass gathering of the Hajj and the year-long influx of pilgrims undertaking the Umrah. Based on the inc...

    Authors: Tarek Soliman, Alex R Cook and Richard J Coker

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2015 12:3

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Uptake of family planning services in Pakistan has remained slow over the past decade despite a rapid increase in availability and awareness, indicating that social barriers may be preventing uptake. Social ba...

    Authors: Mishal S Khan, Farah Naz Hashmani, Owais Ahmed, Minaal Khan, Sajjad Ahmed, Shershah Syed and Fahad Qazi

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2015 12:2

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  7. Content type: Research article

    There is increasing evidence that childhood vaccines have effects that extend beyond their target disease. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of routine childhood vaccines on bacterial carri...

    Authors: Christian Bottomley, Abdoulie Bojang, Peter G Smith, Ousainou Darboe, Martin Antonio, Ebenezer Foster-Nyarko, Beate Kampmann, Brian Greenwood, Umberto D’Alessandro and Anna Roca

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2015 12:1

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  8. Content type: Review

    Aging societies worldwide propose a significant challenge to the model and organisation of the delivery of healthcare services. In developing countries, communicable and non-communicable diseases are affecting...

    Authors: Cesar Henriquez-Camacho, Juan Losa, J Jaime Miranda and Natalie E Cheyne

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2014 11:136

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Tuberculosis is a major disease worldwide and most research focus on risk factors for adults, although there is a marked adolescent peak in incidence. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors f...

    Authors: Hilary Stevens, Ricardo AA Ximenes, Odimariles MS Dantas and Laura C Rodrigues

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2014 11:20

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  10. Content type: Analytic perspective

    Though it has been a focus of the country’s public health surveillance systems since the 1950s, schistosomiasis represents an ongoing public health challenge in China. Parallel, schistosomiasis-specific survei...

    Authors: Song Liang, Changhong Yang, Bo Zhong, Jiagang Guo, Huazhong Li, Elizabeth J Carlton, Matthew C Freeman and Justin V Remais

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2014 11:19

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  11. Content type: Research article

    In the literature, different shapes of associations have been found between body mass index (BMI) and mortality and some of the findings were opposite to each other. The association of BMI and mortality in a s...

    Authors: Jianghua He, Qing Yu, Huiquan Zhang and Jonathan D Mahnken

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2014 11:17

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  12. Content type: Research article

    In May 2014, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection, with closely related viral genomes, was diagnosed in two Dutch residents, returning from a pilgrimage to Medina and Mecca, Kingdo...

    Authors: Ewout B Fanoy, Marianne AB van der Sande, Marleen Kraaij-Dirkzwager, Kees Dirksen, Marcel Jonges, Wim van der Hoek, Marion PG Koopmans, Douwe van der Werf, Gerard Sonder, Charlie van der Weijden, Jet van der Heuvel, Luc Gelinck, Jolande W Bouwhuis and Arianne B van Gageldonk-Lafeber

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2014 11:16

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Oseltamivir has been registered for use as post-exposition prophylaxis (PEP) following exposure to influenza, based on studies among healthy adults. Effectiveness among frail elderly nursing home populations s...

    Authors: Marianne AB van der Sande, Adam Meijer, Fatmagül Şen-Kerpiclik, Remko Enserink, Herman JM Cools, Piet Overduin, José M Ferreira and Marie-José Veldman-Ariessen

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2014 11:13

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Men having sex with men (MSM) remain the largest high-risk group involved in on-going transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STI), including HIV, in the Netherlands. As risk behaviour may change with...

    Authors: Femke DH Koedijk, Birgit HB van Benthem, Eliane MDC Vrolings, Wim Zuilhof and Marianne AB van der Sande

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2014 11:12

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  15. Content type: Analytic perspective

    In many areas of clinical investigation there is great interest in identifying and validating surrogate endpoints, biomarkers that can be measured a relatively short time after a treatment has been administere...

    Authors: Julian Wolfson and Lisa Henn

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2014 11:14

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Measures of household socio-economic position (SEP) are widely used in health research. There exist a number of approaches to their measurement, with Principal Components Analysis (PCA) applied to a basket of ...

    Authors: Daniel D Reidpath and Keivan Ahmadi

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2014 11:9

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  17. Content type: Methodology

    Epidemiology and ecology share many fundamental research questions. Here we describe how principal coordinates of neighbor matrices (PCNM), a method from spatial ecology, can be applied to spatial epidemiology...

    Authors: Ari Voutilainen, Anna-Maija Tolppanen, Katri Vehviläinen-Julkunen and Paula R Sherwood

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2014 11:11

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  18. Content type: Analytic perspective

    Population-based, prospective longitudinal cohort studies are considering the issues surrounding returning findings to individuals as a result of genomic and other medical research studies. While guidance is b...

    Authors: Susan E Wallace, Neil M Walker and Jane Elliott

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2014 11:10

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  19. Content type: Review

    The 21st century has seen the rise of Internet-based participatory surveillance systems for infectious diseases. These systems capture voluntarily submitted symptom data from the general public and can aggregate ...

    Authors: Oktawia P Wójcik, John S Brownstein, Rumi Chunara and Michael A Johansson

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2014 11:7

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  20. Content type: Analytic perspective

    The asset index is often used as a measure of socioeconomic status in empirical research as an explanatory variable or to control confounding. Principal component analysis (PCA) is frequently used to create th...

    Authors: MA Yushuf Sharker, Mohammed Nasser, Jaynal Abedin, Benjamin F Arnold and Stephen P Luby

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2014 11:6

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  21. Content type: Methodology

    It is widely accepted that influenza transmission dynamics vary by age; however methods to quantify the reproductive number by age group are limited. We introduce a simple method to estimate the reproductive n...

    Authors: Laura F White, Brett Archer and Marcello Pagano

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2014 11:4

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Maternal morbidity is more common than maternal death, and population-based estimates of the burden of maternal morbidity could provide important indicators for monitoring trends, priority setting and evaluati...

    Authors: Edward Fottrell, Ulf Högberg, Carine Ronsmans, David Osrin, Kishwar Azad, Nirmala Nair, Nicolas Meda, Rasmane Ganaba, Sourou Goufodji, Peter Byass and Veronique Filippi

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2014 11:3

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  23. Content type: Analytic perspective

    Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) surveys have become increasingly popular in global health care applications. Incorporating Bayesian ideas into LQAS survey design, such as using reasonable prior beliefs a...

    Authors: Lauren Hund

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2014 11:2

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  24. Content type: Methodology

    Relative risk is a summary metric that is commonly used in epidemiological investigations. Increasingly, epidemiologists are using log-binomial models to study the impact of a set of predictor variables on a s...

    Authors: Tyler Williamson, Misha Eliasziw and Gordon Hilton Fick

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013 10:14

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  25. Content type: Methodology

    Effective interventions require evidence on how individual causal pathways jointly determine disease. Based on the concept of systems epidemiology, this paper develops Diagram-based Analysis of Causal Systems ...

    Authors: Eva A Rehfuess, Nicky Best, David J Briggs and Mike Joffe

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013 10:13

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  26. Content type: Analytic perspective

    Individual-level data pooling of large population-based studies across research centres in international research projects faces many hurdles. The BioSHaRE (Biobank Standardisation and Harmonisation for Resear...

    Authors: Dany Doiron, Paul Burton, Yannick Marcon, Amadou Gaye, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel, Markus Perola, Ronald P Stolk, Luisa Foco, Cosetta Minelli, Melanie Waldenberger, Rolf Holle, Kirsti Kvaløy, Hans L Hillege, Anne-Marie Tassé, Vincent Ferretti and Isabel Fortier

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013 10:12

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  27. Content type: Methodology

    Traditional Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) designs assume observations are collected using simple random sampling. Alternatively, randomly sampling clusters of observations and then individuals within c...

    Authors: Bethany L Hedt-Gauthier, Tisha Mitsunaga, Lauren Hund, Casey Olives and Marcello Pagano

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013 10:11

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  28. Content type: Analytic perspective

    An unprecedented number of nationwide tuberculosis (TB) prevalence surveys will be implemented between 2010 and 2015, to better estimate the burden of disease caused by TB and assess whether global targets for...

    Authors: Sian Floyd, Charalambos Sismanidis, Norio Yamada, Rhian Daniel, Jaime Lagahid, Fulvia Mecatti, Rosalind Vianzon, Emily Bloss, Edine Tiemersma, Ikushi Onozaki, Philippe Glaziou and Katherine Floyd

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013 10:10

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  29. Content type: Analytic perspective

    Undernutrition modeling makes it possible to evaluate the potential impact of such events as a food-price shock or harvest failure on the prevalence and severity of undernutrition. There are, however, uncertai...

    Authors: Noah Scovronick, Zaid Chalabi and Paul Wilkinson

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013 10:9

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Missing data often cause problems in longitudinal cohort studies with repeated follow-up waves. Research in this area has focussed on analyses with missing data in repeated measures of the outcome, from which ...

    Authors: Amalia Karahalios, Laura Baglietto, Katherine J Lee, Dallas R English, John B Carlin and Julie A Simpson

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013 10:6

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  31. Content type: Methodology

    Systems for animal disease mitigation involve both surveillance activities and interventions to control the disease. They are complex organizations that are described by partial or imprecise data, making it di...

    Authors: Lucie Collineau, Raphaël Duboz, Mathilde Paul, Marisa Peyre, Flavie Goutard, Sinel Holl and François Roger

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013 10:7

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  32. Content type: Methodology

    There is increasing epidemiological evidence of etiological links between general surgery and sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) with long incubation periods. The purpose of this study was to identify s...

    Authors: Mabel Cruz, Ignacio Mahillo-Fernandez, Alberto Rábano, Åke Siden, Miguel Calero, Henning Laursen, Kåre Mølbak, Javier Almazán and Jesus de Pedro-Cuesta

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013 10:5

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  33. Content type: Analytic perspective

    The volume of influenza pandemic modelling studies has increased dramatically in the last decade. Many models incorporate now sophisticated parameterization and validation techniques, economic analyses and the...

    Authors: Luis R Carrasco, Mark Jit, Mark I Chen, Vernon J Lee, George J Milne and Alex R Cook

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013 10:3

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  34. Content type: Analytic perspective

    Many HIV prevalence surveys are plagued by the problem that a sizeable number of surveyed individuals do not consent to contribute blood samples for testing. One can ignore this problem, as is often done, but ...

    Authors: Lauren Hund and Marcello Pagano

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013 10:2

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  35. Content type: Analytic perspective

    Epidemiological methods for estimating disease prevalence in humans and other animals in the absence of a gold standard diagnostic test are well established. Despite this, reporting apparent prevalence is stil...

    Authors: Fraser I Lewis and Paul R Torgerson

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2012 9:9

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  36. Content type: Methodology

    There are few studies on the epidemiology of epilepsy in large populations in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). Most studies in these regions use two-stage population-based screening surveys, which are t...

    Authors: Anthony K Ngugi, Christian Bottomley, Eddie Chengo, Martha Z Kombe, Michael Kazungu, Evasius Bauni, Caroline K Mbuba, Immo Kleinschmidt and Charles R Newton

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2012 9:8

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  37. Content type: Methodology

    Infectious diseases associated with poor sanitation such as diarrhoea, intestinal worms, trachoma and lymphatic filariasis continue to cause a large disease burden in low income settings and contribute substan...

    Authors: Thomas Clasen, Sophie Boisson, Parimita Routray, Oliver Cumming, Marion Jenkins, Jeroen H J Ensink, Melissa Bell, Matthew C Freeman, Soosai Peppin and Wolf-Peter Schmidt

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2012 9:7

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  38. Content type: Analytic perspective

    Estimation of vaccination coverage at the local level is essential to identify communities that may require additional support. Cluster surveys can be used in resource-poor settings, when population figures ar...

    Authors: Andrea Minetti, Margarita Riera-Montes, Fabienne Nackers, Thomas Roederer, Marie Hortense Koudika, Johanne Sekkenes, Aurore Taconet, Florence Fermon, Albouhary Touré, Rebecca F Grais and Francesco Checchi

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2012 9:6

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  39. Content type: Methodology

    Various methods have been proposed for sampling when data on the population are limited. However, these methods are often biased. We propose a new method to draw a population sample using Global Positioning Sy...

    Authors: Harry S Shannon, Royce Hutson, Athena Kolbe, Bernadette Stringer and Ted Haines

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2012 9:5

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  40. Content type: Analytic perspective

    The World Health Organization (WHO) collects and publishes surveillance data and statistics for select diseases, but traditional methods of gathering such data are time and labor intensive. Event-based biosurv...

    Authors: Noele P Nelson, Li Yang, Aimee R Reilly, Jessica E Hardin and David M Hartley

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2012 9:4

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