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  1. Relative risk is a summary metric that is commonly used in epidemiological investigations. Increasingly, epidemiologists are using log-binomial models to study the impact of a set of predictor variables on a s...

    Authors: Tyler Williamson, Misha Eliasziw and Gordon Hilton Fick

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013 10:14

    Content type: Methodology

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  2. Effective interventions require evidence on how individual causal pathways jointly determine disease. Based on the concept of systems epidemiology, this paper develops Diagram-based Analysis of Causal Systems ...

    Authors: Eva A Rehfuess, Nicky Best, David J Briggs and Mike Joffe

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013 10:13

    Content type: Methodology

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  3. Individual-level data pooling of large population-based studies across research centres in international research projects faces many hurdles. The BioSHaRE (Biobank Standardisation and Harmonisation for Resear...

    Authors: Dany Doiron, Paul Burton, Yannick Marcon, Amadou Gaye, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel, Markus Perola, Ronald P Stolk, Luisa Foco, Cosetta Minelli, Melanie Waldenberger, Rolf Holle, Kirsti Kvaløy, Hans L Hillege, Anne-Marie Tassé, Vincent Ferretti and Isabel Fortier

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013 10:12

    Content type: Analytic perspective

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  4. Traditional Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) designs assume observations are collected using simple random sampling. Alternatively, randomly sampling clusters of observations and then individuals within c...

    Authors: Bethany L Hedt-Gauthier, Tisha Mitsunaga, Lauren Hund, Casey Olives and Marcello Pagano

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013 10:11

    Content type: Methodology

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  5. An unprecedented number of nationwide tuberculosis (TB) prevalence surveys will be implemented between 2010 and 2015, to better estimate the burden of disease caused by TB and assess whether global targets for...

    Authors: Sian Floyd, Charalambos Sismanidis, Norio Yamada, Rhian Daniel, Jaime Lagahid, Fulvia Mecatti, Rosalind Vianzon, Emily Bloss, Edine Tiemersma, Ikushi Onozaki, Philippe Glaziou and Katherine Floyd

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013 10:10

    Content type: Analytic perspective

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  6. Undernutrition modeling makes it possible to evaluate the potential impact of such events as a food-price shock or harvest failure on the prevalence and severity of undernutrition. There are, however, uncertai...

    Authors: Noah Scovronick, Zaid Chalabi and Paul Wilkinson

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013 10:9

    Content type: Analytic perspective

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  7. Missing data often cause problems in longitudinal cohort studies with repeated follow-up waves. Research in this area has focussed on analyses with missing data in repeated measures of the outcome, from which ...

    Authors: Amalia Karahalios, Laura Baglietto, Katherine J Lee, Dallas R English, John B Carlin and Julie A Simpson

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013 10:6

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Systems for animal disease mitigation involve both surveillance activities and interventions to control the disease. They are complex organizations that are described by partial or imprecise data, making it di...

    Authors: Lucie Collineau, Raphaël Duboz, Mathilde Paul, Marisa Peyre, Flavie Goutard, Sinel Holl and François Roger

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013 10:7

    Content type: Methodology

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  9. There is increasing epidemiological evidence of etiological links between general surgery and sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) with long incubation periods. The purpose of this study was to identify s...

    Authors: Mabel Cruz, Ignacio Mahillo-Fernandez, Alberto Rábano, Åke Siden, Miguel Calero, Henning Laursen, Kåre Mølbak, Javier Almazán and Jesus de Pedro-Cuesta

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013 10:5

    Content type: Methodology

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  10. The volume of influenza pandemic modelling studies has increased dramatically in the last decade. Many models incorporate now sophisticated parameterization and validation techniques, economic analyses and the...

    Authors: Luis R Carrasco, Mark Jit, Mark I Chen, Vernon J Lee, George J Milne and Alex R Cook

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013 10:3

    Content type: Analytic perspective

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  11. Many HIV prevalence surveys are plagued by the problem that a sizeable number of surveyed individuals do not consent to contribute blood samples for testing. One can ignore this problem, as is often done, but ...

    Authors: Lauren Hund and Marcello Pagano

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013 10:2

    Content type: Analytic perspective

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  12. Epidemiological methods for estimating disease prevalence in humans and other animals in the absence of a gold standard diagnostic test are well established. Despite this, reporting apparent prevalence is stil...

    Authors: Fraser I Lewis and Paul R Torgerson

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2012 9:9

    Content type: Analytic perspective

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  13. There are few studies on the epidemiology of epilepsy in large populations in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). Most studies in these regions use two-stage population-based screening surveys, which are t...

    Authors: Anthony K Ngugi, Christian Bottomley, Eddie Chengo, Martha Z Kombe, Michael Kazungu, Evasius Bauni, Caroline K Mbuba, Immo Kleinschmidt and Charles R Newton

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2012 9:8

    Content type: Methodology

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  14. Infectious diseases associated with poor sanitation such as diarrhoea, intestinal worms, trachoma and lymphatic filariasis continue to cause a large disease burden in low income settings and contribute substan...

    Authors: Thomas Clasen, Sophie Boisson, Parimita Routray, Oliver Cumming, Marion Jenkins, Jeroen H J Ensink, Melissa Bell, Matthew C Freeman, Soosai Peppin and Wolf-Peter Schmidt

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2012 9:7

    Content type: Methodology

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  15. Estimation of vaccination coverage at the local level is essential to identify communities that may require additional support. Cluster surveys can be used in resource-poor settings, when population figures ar...

    Authors: Andrea Minetti, Margarita Riera-Montes, Fabienne Nackers, Thomas Roederer, Marie Hortense Koudika, Johanne Sekkenes, Aurore Taconet, Florence Fermon, Albouhary Touré, Rebecca F Grais and Francesco Checchi

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2012 9:6

    Content type: Analytic perspective

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  16. Various methods have been proposed for sampling when data on the population are limited. However, these methods are often biased. We propose a new method to draw a population sample using Global Positioning Sy...

    Authors: Harry S Shannon, Royce Hutson, Athena Kolbe, Bernadette Stringer and Ted Haines

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2012 9:5

    Content type: Methodology

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  17. The World Health Organization (WHO) collects and publishes surveillance data and statistics for select diseases, but traditional methods of gathering such data are time and labor intensive. Event-based biosurv...

    Authors: Noele P Nelson, Li Yang, Aimee R Reilly, Jessica E Hardin and David M Hartley

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2012 9:4

    Content type: Analytic perspective

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  18. There is increasing interest in using chemicals measured in carpet dust as indicators of chemical exposures. However, investigators have rarely sampled dust repeatedly from the same households and therefore li...

    Authors: Todd P Whitehead, John R Nuckols, Mary H Ward and Stephen M Rappaport

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2012 9:2

    Content type: Analytic perspective

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  19. Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the ana...

    Authors: Michael Joffe, Manoj Gambhir, Marc Chadeau-Hyam and Paolo Vineis

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2012 9:1

    Content type: Analytic perspective

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  20. The aim of this study is to show how geographical information systems (GIS) can be used to track and compare hospitalization rates for traumatic brain injury (TBI) over time and across a large geographical are...

    Authors: Angela Colantonio, Byron Moldofsky, Michael Escobar, Lee Vernich, Mary Chipman and Barry McLellan

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2011 8:7

    Content type: Methodology

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  21. Empirical findings show that morbidity and mortality risks of migrants can differ considerably from those of populations in the host countries. However, while several explanatory models have been developed, mo...

    Authors: Jacob Spallek, Hajo Zeeb and Oliver Razum

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2011 8:6

    Content type: Debate

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  22. Observational studies of human health and disease (basic, clinical and epidemiological) are vulnerable to methodological problems -such as selection bias and confounding- that make causal inferences problemati...

    Authors: Sara Geneletti, Valentina Gallo, Miquel Porta, Muin J Khoury and Paolo Vineis

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2011 8:5

    Content type: Methodology

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  23. Generalisability of longitudinal studies is threatened by issues such as choice of sampling frame, representativeness of the initial sample, and attrition. To determine representativeness, cohorts are often co...

    Authors: Richard Hockey, Leigh Tooth and Annette Dobson

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2011 8:3

    Content type: Methodology

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  24. There are growing concerns regarding inequities in health, with poverty being an important determinant of health as well as a product of health status. Within the People's Republic of China (P.R. China), dispa...

    Authors: Julie Balen, Donald P McManus, Yue-Sheng Li, Zheng-Yuan Zhao, Li-Ping Yuan, Jürg Utzinger, Gail M Williams, Ying Li, Mao-Yuan Ren, Zong-Chuan Liu, Jie Zhou and Giovanna Raso

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2010 7:7

    Content type: Analytic perspective

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  25. Current conceptual frameworks on the interrelationship between armed conflict and poverty are based primarily on aggregated macro-level data and/or qualitative evidence and usually focus on adherents of warrin...

    Authors: Thomas Fürst, Andres B Tschannen, Giovanna Raso, Cinthia A Acka, Don de Savigny, Olivier Girardin, Eliézer K N'Goran and Jürg Utzinger

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2010 7:6

    Content type: Analytic perspective

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  26. Measuring recurrent infections such as diarrhoea or respiratory infections in epidemiological studies is a methodological challenge. Problems in measuring the incidence of recurrent infections include the epis...

    Authors: Wolf-Peter Schmidt, Bernd Genser, Mauricio L Barreto, Thomas Clasen, Stephen P Luby, Sandy Cairncross and Zaid Chalabi

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2010 7:5

    Content type: Methodology

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  27. Laboratory testing in clinical practice is never a random process. In this study we evaluated testing bias for neutrophil counts in clinical practice by using results from requested and non-requested hematolog...

    Authors: Karin J Velthove, Hubert GM Leufkens, Patrick C Souverein, René C Schweizer and Wouter W van Solinge

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2010 7:2

    Content type: Methodology

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  28. To control for confounding bias from non-random treatment assignment in observational data, both traditional multivariable models and more recently propensity score approaches have been applied. Our aim was to...

    Authors: Ylian S Liem, John B Wong, MG Myriam Hunink, Frank Th de Charro and Wolfgang C Winkelmayer

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2010 7:1

    Content type: Analytic perspective

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  29. To date different vaginal gel microbicides have been evaluated in phase 2b/3 trials, but none have demonstrated effectiveness for preventing HIV infection. Failure to demonstrate effectiveness however does not...

    Authors: Benoît R Mâsse, Marie-Claude Boily, Dobromir Dimitrov and Kamal Desai

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2009 6:5

    Content type: Methodology

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  30. West Nile virus (WNV) is currently the leading cause of arboviral-associated encephalitis in the U.S., and can lead to long-term neurologic sequelae. Improvements in dead bird specimen processing time, includi...

    Authors: Anna Veksler, Millicent Eidson and Igor Zurbenko

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2009 6:4

    Content type: Methodology

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  31. Instrumental variable (IV) methods have been used in econometrics for several decades now, but have only recently been introduced into the epidemiologic research frameworks. Similarly, Mendelian randomization ...

    Authors: Ikechukwu U Ogbuanu, Hongmei Zhang and Wilfried Karmaus

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2009 6:3

    Content type: Analytic perspective

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  32. Comparing survival of patients with a single tumour and patients with multiple primaries poses different methodological problems. In population based studies, where we cannot rely on detailed clinical informat...

    Authors: Stefano Rosso, Fulvio Ricceri, Lea Terracini and Roberto Zanetti

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2009 6:2

    Content type: Methodology

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  33. Because common diseases are caused by complex interactions among many genetic variants along with environmental risk factors, very large sample sizes are usually needed to detect such effects in case-control s...

    Authors: Ramal Moonesinghe, Quanhe Yang and Muin J Khoury

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:24

    Content type: Analytic perspective

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  34. Systematic reviews based on the critical appraisal of observational and analytic studies on HIV prevalence and risk factors for HIV transmission among men having sex with men are very useful for health care de...

    Authors: William CW Wong, Catherine SK Cheung and Graham J Hart

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:23

    Content type: Analytic perspective

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  35. In 2002, Norway experienced a large outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in hospitals with 231 confirmed cases. This fuelled intense public and professional debates on what were the causes and who were r...

    Authors: Bjørn G Iversen, Bjørn Hofmann and Preben Aavitsland

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:22

    Content type: Analytic perspective

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