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  1. Men having sex with men (MSM) remain the largest high-risk group involved in on-going transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STI), including HIV, in the Netherlands. As risk behaviour may change with...

    Authors: Femke DH Koedijk, Birgit HB van Benthem, Eliane MDC Vrolings, Wim Zuilhof and Marianne AB van der Sande
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2014 11:12
  2. In many areas of clinical investigation there is great interest in identifying and validating surrogate endpoints, biomarkers that can be measured a relatively short time after a treatment has been administere...

    Authors: Julian Wolfson and Lisa Henn
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2014 11:14
  3. Measures of household socio-economic position (SEP) are widely used in health research. There exist a number of approaches to their measurement, with Principal Components Analysis (PCA) applied to a basket of ...

    Authors: Daniel D Reidpath and Keivan Ahmadi
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2014 11:9
  4. Epidemiology and ecology share many fundamental research questions. Here we describe how principal coordinates of neighbor matrices (PCNM), a method from spatial ecology, can be applied to spatial epidemiology...

    Authors: Ari Voutilainen, Anna-Maija Tolppanen, Katri Vehviläinen-Julkunen and Paula R Sherwood
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2014 11:11
  5. Population-based, prospective longitudinal cohort studies are considering the issues surrounding returning findings to individuals as a result of genomic and other medical research studies. While guidance is b...

    Authors: Susan E Wallace, Neil M Walker and Jane Elliott
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2014 11:10
  6. The 21st century has seen the rise of Internet-based participatory surveillance systems for infectious diseases. These systems capture voluntarily submitted symptom data from the general public and can aggregate ...

    Authors: Oktawia P Wójcik, John S Brownstein, Rumi Chunara and Michael A Johansson
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2014 11:7
  7. The asset index is often used as a measure of socioeconomic status in empirical research as an explanatory variable or to control confounding. Principal component analysis (PCA) is frequently used to create th...

    Authors: MA Yushuf Sharker, Mohammed Nasser, Jaynal Abedin, Benjamin F Arnold and Stephen P Luby
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2014 11:6
  8. It is widely accepted that influenza transmission dynamics vary by age; however methods to quantify the reproductive number by age group are limited. We introduce a simple method to estimate the reproductive n...

    Authors: Laura F White, Brett Archer and Marcello Pagano
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2014 11:4
  9. Maternal morbidity is more common than maternal death, and population-based estimates of the burden of maternal morbidity could provide important indicators for monitoring trends, priority setting and evaluati...

    Authors: Edward Fottrell, Ulf Högberg, Carine Ronsmans, David Osrin, Kishwar Azad, Nirmala Nair, Nicolas Meda, Rasmane Ganaba, Sourou Goufodji, Peter Byass and Veronique Filippi
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2014 11:3
  10. Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) surveys have become increasingly popular in global health care applications. Incorporating Bayesian ideas into LQAS survey design, such as using reasonable prior beliefs a...

    Authors: Lauren Hund
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2014 11:2
  11. Relative risk is a summary metric that is commonly used in epidemiological investigations. Increasingly, epidemiologists are using log-binomial models to study the impact of a set of predictor variables on a s...

    Authors: Tyler Williamson, Misha Eliasziw and Gordon Hilton Fick
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013 10:14
  12. Effective interventions require evidence on how individual causal pathways jointly determine disease. Based on the concept of systems epidemiology, this paper develops Diagram-based Analysis of Causal Systems ...

    Authors: Eva A Rehfuess, Nicky Best, David J Briggs and Mike Joffe
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013 10:13
  13. Individual-level data pooling of large population-based studies across research centres in international research projects faces many hurdles. The BioSHaRE (Biobank Standardisation and Harmonisation for Resear...

    Authors: Dany Doiron, Paul Burton, Yannick Marcon, Amadou Gaye, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel, Markus Perola, Ronald P Stolk, Luisa Foco, Cosetta Minelli, Melanie Waldenberger, Rolf Holle, Kirsti Kvaløy, Hans L Hillege, Anne-Marie Tassé, Vincent Ferretti and Isabel Fortier
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013 10:12
  14. Traditional Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) designs assume observations are collected using simple random sampling. Alternatively, randomly sampling clusters of observations and then individuals within c...

    Authors: Bethany L Hedt-Gauthier, Tisha Mitsunaga, Lauren Hund, Casey Olives and Marcello Pagano
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013 10:11
  15. An unprecedented number of nationwide tuberculosis (TB) prevalence surveys will be implemented between 2010 and 2015, to better estimate the burden of disease caused by TB and assess whether global targets for...

    Authors: Sian Floyd, Charalambos Sismanidis, Norio Yamada, Rhian Daniel, Jaime Lagahid, Fulvia Mecatti, Rosalind Vianzon, Emily Bloss, Edine Tiemersma, Ikushi Onozaki, Philippe Glaziou and Katherine Floyd
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013 10:10
  16. Undernutrition modeling makes it possible to evaluate the potential impact of such events as a food-price shock or harvest failure on the prevalence and severity of undernutrition. There are, however, uncertai...

    Authors: Noah Scovronick, Zaid Chalabi and Paul Wilkinson
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013 10:9
  17. Missing data often cause problems in longitudinal cohort studies with repeated follow-up waves. Research in this area has focussed on analyses with missing data in repeated measures of the outcome, from which ...

    Authors: Amalia Karahalios, Laura Baglietto, Katherine J Lee, Dallas R English, John B Carlin and Julie A Simpson
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013 10:6
  18. Systems for animal disease mitigation involve both surveillance activities and interventions to control the disease. They are complex organizations that are described by partial or imprecise data, making it di...

    Authors: Lucie Collineau, Raphaël Duboz, Mathilde Paul, Marisa Peyre, Flavie Goutard, Sinel Holl and François Roger
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013 10:7
  19. There is increasing epidemiological evidence of etiological links between general surgery and sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) with long incubation periods. The purpose of this study was to identify s...

    Authors: Mabel Cruz, Ignacio Mahillo-Fernandez, Alberto Rábano, Åke Siden, Miguel Calero, Henning Laursen, Kåre Mølbak, Javier Almazán and Jesus de Pedro-Cuesta
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013 10:5
  20. The volume of influenza pandemic modelling studies has increased dramatically in the last decade. Many models incorporate now sophisticated parameterization and validation techniques, economic analyses and the...

    Authors: Luis R Carrasco, Mark Jit, Mark I Chen, Vernon J Lee, George J Milne and Alex R Cook
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013 10:3
  21. Many HIV prevalence surveys are plagued by the problem that a sizeable number of surveyed individuals do not consent to contribute blood samples for testing. One can ignore this problem, as is often done, but ...

    Authors: Lauren Hund and Marcello Pagano
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2013 10:2
  22. Epidemiological methods for estimating disease prevalence in humans and other animals in the absence of a gold standard diagnostic test are well established. Despite this, reporting apparent prevalence is stil...

    Authors: Fraser I Lewis and Paul R Torgerson
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2012 9:9
  23. There are few studies on the epidemiology of epilepsy in large populations in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). Most studies in these regions use two-stage population-based screening surveys, which are t...

    Authors: Anthony K Ngugi, Christian Bottomley, Eddie Chengo, Martha Z Kombe, Michael Kazungu, Evasius Bauni, Caroline K Mbuba, Immo Kleinschmidt and Charles R Newton
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2012 9:8
  24. Infectious diseases associated with poor sanitation such as diarrhoea, intestinal worms, trachoma and lymphatic filariasis continue to cause a large disease burden in low income settings and contribute substan...

    Authors: Thomas Clasen, Sophie Boisson, Parimita Routray, Oliver Cumming, Marion Jenkins, Jeroen H J Ensink, Melissa Bell, Matthew C Freeman, Soosai Peppin and Wolf-Peter Schmidt
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2012 9:7
  25. Estimation of vaccination coverage at the local level is essential to identify communities that may require additional support. Cluster surveys can be used in resource-poor settings, when population figures ar...

    Authors: Andrea Minetti, Margarita Riera-Montes, Fabienne Nackers, Thomas Roederer, Marie Hortense Koudika, Johanne Sekkenes, Aurore Taconet, Florence Fermon, Albouhary Touré, Rebecca F Grais and Francesco Checchi
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2012 9:6
  26. Various methods have been proposed for sampling when data on the population are limited. However, these methods are often biased. We propose a new method to draw a population sample using Global Positioning Sy...

    Authors: Harry S Shannon, Royce Hutson, Athena Kolbe, Bernadette Stringer and Ted Haines
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2012 9:5
  27. The World Health Organization (WHO) collects and publishes surveillance data and statistics for select diseases, but traditional methods of gathering such data are time and labor intensive. Event-based biosurv...

    Authors: Noele P Nelson, Li Yang, Aimee R Reilly, Jessica E Hardin and David M Hartley
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2012 9:4
  28. There is increasing interest in using chemicals measured in carpet dust as indicators of chemical exposures. However, investigators have rarely sampled dust repeatedly from the same households and therefore li...

    Authors: Todd P Whitehead, John R Nuckols, Mary H Ward and Stephen M Rappaport
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2012 9:2
  29. Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the ana...

    Authors: Michael Joffe, Manoj Gambhir, Marc Chadeau-Hyam and Paolo Vineis
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2012 9:1
  30. The aim of this study is to show how geographical information systems (GIS) can be used to track and compare hospitalization rates for traumatic brain injury (TBI) over time and across a large geographical are...

    Authors: Angela Colantonio, Byron Moldofsky, Michael Escobar, Lee Vernich, Mary Chipman and Barry McLellan
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2011 8:7
  31. Empirical findings show that morbidity and mortality risks of migrants can differ considerably from those of populations in the host countries. However, while several explanatory models have been developed, mo...

    Authors: Jacob Spallek, Hajo Zeeb and Oliver Razum
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2011 8:6
  32. Observational studies of human health and disease (basic, clinical and epidemiological) are vulnerable to methodological problems -such as selection bias and confounding- that make causal inferences problemati...

    Authors: Sara Geneletti, Valentina Gallo, Miquel Porta, Muin J Khoury and Paolo Vineis
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2011 8:5
  33. Generalisability of longitudinal studies is threatened by issues such as choice of sampling frame, representativeness of the initial sample, and attrition. To determine representativeness, cohorts are often co...

    Authors: Richard Hockey, Leigh Tooth and Annette Dobson
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2011 8:3
  34. There are growing concerns regarding inequities in health, with poverty being an important determinant of health as well as a product of health status. Within the People's Republic of China (P.R. China), dispa...

    Authors: Julie Balen, Donald P McManus, Yue-Sheng Li, Zheng-Yuan Zhao, Li-Ping Yuan, Jürg Utzinger, Gail M Williams, Ying Li, Mao-Yuan Ren, Zong-Chuan Liu, Jie Zhou and Giovanna Raso
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2010 7:7
  35. Current conceptual frameworks on the interrelationship between armed conflict and poverty are based primarily on aggregated macro-level data and/or qualitative evidence and usually focus on adherents of warrin...

    Authors: Thomas Fürst, Andres B Tschannen, Giovanna Raso, Cinthia A Acka, Don de Savigny, Olivier Girardin, Eliézer K N'Goran and Jürg Utzinger
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2010 7:6
  36. Measuring recurrent infections such as diarrhoea or respiratory infections in epidemiological studies is a methodological challenge. Problems in measuring the incidence of recurrent infections include the epis...

    Authors: Wolf-Peter Schmidt, Bernd Genser, Mauricio L Barreto, Thomas Clasen, Stephen P Luby, Sandy Cairncross and Zaid Chalabi
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2010 7:5
  37. Laboratory testing in clinical practice is never a random process. In this study we evaluated testing bias for neutrophil counts in clinical practice by using results from requested and non-requested hematolog...

    Authors: Karin J Velthove, Hubert GM Leufkens, Patrick C Souverein, René C Schweizer and Wouter W van Solinge
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2010 7:2
  38. To control for confounding bias from non-random treatment assignment in observational data, both traditional multivariable models and more recently propensity score approaches have been applied. Our aim was to...

    Authors: Ylian S Liem, John B Wong, MG Myriam Hunink, Frank Th de Charro and Wolfgang C Winkelmayer
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2010 7:1