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  1. Content type: Methodology

    Infectious diseases associated with poor sanitation such as diarrhoea, intestinal worms, trachoma and lymphatic filariasis continue to cause a large disease burden in low income settings and contribute substan...

    Authors: Thomas Clasen, Sophie Boisson, Parimita Routray, Oliver Cumming, Marion Jenkins, Jeroen H J Ensink, Melissa Bell, Matthew C Freeman, Soosai Peppin and Wolf-Peter Schmidt

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2012 9:7

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  2. Content type: Analytic perspective

    Estimation of vaccination coverage at the local level is essential to identify communities that may require additional support. Cluster surveys can be used in resource-poor settings, when population figures ar...

    Authors: Andrea Minetti, Margarita Riera-Montes, Fabienne Nackers, Thomas Roederer, Marie Hortense Koudika, Johanne Sekkenes, Aurore Taconet, Florence Fermon, Albouhary Touré, Rebecca F Grais and Francesco Checchi

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2012 9:6

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  3. Content type: Methodology

    Various methods have been proposed for sampling when data on the population are limited. However, these methods are often biased. We propose a new method to draw a population sample using Global Positioning Sy...

    Authors: Harry S Shannon, Royce Hutson, Athena Kolbe, Bernadette Stringer and Ted Haines

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2012 9:5

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  4. Content type: Analytic perspective

    The World Health Organization (WHO) collects and publishes surveillance data and statistics for select diseases, but traditional methods of gathering such data are time and labor intensive. Event-based biosurv...

    Authors: Noele P Nelson, Li Yang, Aimee R Reilly, Jessica E Hardin and David M Hartley

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2012 9:4

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  5. Content type: Analytic perspective

    There is increasing interest in using chemicals measured in carpet dust as indicators of chemical exposures. However, investigators have rarely sampled dust repeatedly from the same households and therefore li...

    Authors: Todd P Whitehead, John R Nuckols, Mary H Ward and Stephen M Rappaport

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2012 9:2

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  6. Content type: Analytic perspective

    Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the ana...

    Authors: Michael Joffe, Manoj Gambhir, Marc Chadeau-Hyam and Paolo Vineis

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2012 9:1

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  7. Content type: Methodology

    The aim of this study is to show how geographical information systems (GIS) can be used to track and compare hospitalization rates for traumatic brain injury (TBI) over time and across a large geographical are...

    Authors: Angela Colantonio, Byron Moldofsky, Michael Escobar, Lee Vernich, Mary Chipman and Barry McLellan

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2011 8:7

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  8. Content type: Debate

    Empirical findings show that morbidity and mortality risks of migrants can differ considerably from those of populations in the host countries. However, while several explanatory models have been developed, mo...

    Authors: Jacob Spallek, Hajo Zeeb and Oliver Razum

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2011 8:6

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  9. Content type: Methodology

    Observational studies of human health and disease (basic, clinical and epidemiological) are vulnerable to methodological problems -such as selection bias and confounding- that make causal inferences problemati...

    Authors: Sara Geneletti, Valentina Gallo, Miquel Porta, Muin J Khoury and Paolo Vineis

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2011 8:5

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  10. Content type: Methodology

    Generalisability of longitudinal studies is threatened by issues such as choice of sampling frame, representativeness of the initial sample, and attrition. To determine representativeness, cohorts are often co...

    Authors: Richard Hockey, Leigh Tooth and Annette Dobson

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2011 8:3

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  11. Content type: Analytic perspective

    There are growing concerns regarding inequities in health, with poverty being an important determinant of health as well as a product of health status. Within the People's Republic of China (P.R. China), dispa...

    Authors: Julie Balen, Donald P McManus, Yue-Sheng Li, Zheng-Yuan Zhao, Li-Ping Yuan, Jürg Utzinger, Gail M Williams, Ying Li, Mao-Yuan Ren, Zong-Chuan Liu, Jie Zhou and Giovanna Raso

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2010 7:7

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  12. Content type: Analytic perspective

    Current conceptual frameworks on the interrelationship between armed conflict and poverty are based primarily on aggregated macro-level data and/or qualitative evidence and usually focus on adherents of warrin...

    Authors: Thomas Fürst, Andres B Tschannen, Giovanna Raso, Cinthia A Acka, Don de Savigny, Olivier Girardin, Eliézer K N'Goran and Jürg Utzinger

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2010 7:6

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  13. Content type: Methodology

    Measuring recurrent infections such as diarrhoea or respiratory infections in epidemiological studies is a methodological challenge. Problems in measuring the incidence of recurrent infections include the epis...

    Authors: Wolf-Peter Schmidt, Bernd Genser, Mauricio L Barreto, Thomas Clasen, Stephen P Luby, Sandy Cairncross and Zaid Chalabi

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2010 7:5

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  14. Content type: Methodology

    Laboratory testing in clinical practice is never a random process. In this study we evaluated testing bias for neutrophil counts in clinical practice by using results from requested and non-requested hematolog...

    Authors: Karin J Velthove, Hubert GM Leufkens, Patrick C Souverein, René C Schweizer and Wouter W van Solinge

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2010 7:2

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  15. Content type: Analytic perspective

    To control for confounding bias from non-random treatment assignment in observational data, both traditional multivariable models and more recently propensity score approaches have been applied. Our aim was to...

    Authors: Ylian S Liem, John B Wong, MG Myriam Hunink, Frank Th de Charro and Wolfgang C Winkelmayer

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2010 7:1

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  16. Content type: Methodology

    To date different vaginal gel microbicides have been evaluated in phase 2b/3 trials, but none have demonstrated effectiveness for preventing HIV infection. Failure to demonstrate effectiveness however does not...

    Authors: Benoît R Mâsse, Marie-Claude Boily, Dobromir Dimitrov and Kamal Desai

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2009 6:5

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  17. Content type: Methodology

    West Nile virus (WNV) is currently the leading cause of arboviral-associated encephalitis in the U.S., and can lead to long-term neurologic sequelae. Improvements in dead bird specimen processing time, includi...

    Authors: Anna Veksler, Millicent Eidson and Igor Zurbenko

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2009 6:4

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  18. Content type: Analytic perspective

    Instrumental variable (IV) methods have been used in econometrics for several decades now, but have only recently been introduced into the epidemiologic research frameworks. Similarly, Mendelian randomization ...

    Authors: Ikechukwu U Ogbuanu, Hongmei Zhang and Wilfried Karmaus

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2009 6:3

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  19. Content type: Methodology

    Comparing survival of patients with a single tumour and patients with multiple primaries poses different methodological problems. In population based studies, where we cannot rely on detailed clinical informat...

    Authors: Stefano Rosso, Fulvio Ricceri, Lea Terracini and Roberto Zanetti

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2009 6:2

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  20. Content type: Analytic perspective

    Because common diseases are caused by complex interactions among many genetic variants along with environmental risk factors, very large sample sizes are usually needed to detect such effects in case-control s...

    Authors: Ramal Moonesinghe, Quanhe Yang and Muin J Khoury

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:24

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  21. Content type: Analytic perspective

    Systematic reviews based on the critical appraisal of observational and analytic studies on HIV prevalence and risk factors for HIV transmission among men having sex with men are very useful for health care de...

    Authors: William CW Wong, Catherine SK Cheung and Graham J Hart

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:23

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  22. Content type: Analytic perspective

    In 2002, Norway experienced a large outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in hospitals with 231 confirmed cases. This fuelled intense public and professional debates on what were the causes and who were r...

    Authors: Bjørn G Iversen, Bjørn Hofmann and Preben Aavitsland

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:22

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  23. Content type: Analytic perspective

    Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health contain much that is of potential international interest. However, few non-Chinese speakers are acquainted with this literature. This art...

    Authors: Isaac CH Fung

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:20

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  24. Content type: Analytic perspective

    The economy of China continues to boom and so have its biomedical research and related publishing activities. Several so-called neglected tropical diseases that are most common in the developing world are stil...

    Authors: Qin Liu, Li-Guang Tian, Shu-Hua Xiao, Zhen Qi, Peter Steinmann, Tippi K Mak, Jürg Utzinger and Xiao-Nong Zhou

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:19

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  25. Content type: Analytic perspective

    It is well known that papers written in languages other than English have a great risk of being ignored simply because these languages are not accessible to the international scientific community. The objectiv...

    Authors: Mauricio L Barreto and Rita Barradas Barata

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:18

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  26. Content type: Review

    There is a multiplicity of journals originating in Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (SSLAC) in the health sciences of relevance to the fields of epidemiology and publ...

    Authors: John R Williams, Annick Bórquez and María-Gloria Basáñez

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:17

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  27. Content type: Analytic perspective

    Epidemiology and public health are usually context-specific. Journals published in different languages and countries play a role both as sources of data and as channels through which evidence is incorporated i...

    Authors: Iacopo Baussano, Patrick Brzoska, Ugo Fedeli, Claudia Larouche, Oliver Razum and Isaac C-H Fung

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:16

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  28. Content type: Commentary

    In the 20th century, Russian biomedical science experienced a decline from the blossom of the early years to a drastic state. Through the first decades of the USSR, it was transformed to suit the ideological requ...

    Authors: Vasiliy V Vlassov and Kirill D Danishevskiy

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:15

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  29. Content type: Analytic perspective

    The study provides the rationale, history and current status of the Index Medicus for the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region. The Index is unique in combining the geographic coverage of pee...

    Authors: Najeeb Al-Shorbaji

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:14

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  30. Content type: Analytic perspective

    Randomized trials are essential in assessing the effects of healthcare interventions and are a key component in systematic reviews of effectiveness. Searching for reports of randomized trials in databases is p...

    Authors: Carol Lefebvre, Anne Eisinga, Steve McDonald and Nina Paul

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:13

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  31. Content type: Debate

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is severely affected by HIV/AIDS and conflict. Sexual violence as a weapon of war has been associated with concerns about heightened HIV incidence among women. Widespread rape by comba...

    Authors: Aranka Anema, Michel R Joffres, Edward Mills and Paul B Spiegel

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:11

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  32. Content type: Analytic perspective

    In 2004, Garcia-Berthou and Alcaraz published "Incongruence between test statistics and P values in medical papers," a critique of statistical errors that received a tremendous amount of attention. One of thei...

    Authors: Carl V Phillips, Richard F MacLehose and Jay S Kaufman

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:9

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  33. Content type: Analytic perspective

    Only four out of 31 completed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of HIV prevention strategies against sexual transmission have shown significant efficacy. Poor adherence may have contributed to the lack of ef...

    Authors: Helen A Weiss, Judith N Wasserheit, Ruanne V Barnabas, Richard J Hayes and Laith J Abu-Raddad

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:8

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  34. Content type: Commentary

    Tu et al present an analysis of the equivalence of three paradoxes, namely, Simpson's, Lord's, and the suppression phenomena. They conclude that all three simply reiterate the occurrence of a change in the associ...

    Authors: Onyebuchi A Arah

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:5

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  35. Content type: Analytic perspective

    Epidemiological studies often require measures of socio-economic position (SEP). The application of principal components analysis (PCA) to data on asset-ownership is one popular approach to household SEP measu...

    Authors: Laura D Howe, James R Hargreaves and Sharon RA Huttly

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:3

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