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  1. Content type: Analytic perspective

    This article discusses three statistical paradoxes that pervade epidemiological research: Simpson's paradox, Lord's paradox, and suppression. These paradoxes have important implications for the interpretation of ...

    Authors: Yu-Kang Tu, David Gunnell and Mark S Gilthorpe

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:2

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  2. Content type: Analytic perspective

    The proportion of infant pertussis cases due to transmission from casual contact in the community has not been estimated since before the introduction of pertussis vaccines in the 1950s. This study aimed to es...

    Authors: Aaron M Wendelboe, Michael G Hudgens, Charles Poole and Annelies Van Rie

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2007 4:15

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  3. Content type: Analytic perspective

    Environmental pollution as a cause of congenital anomalies is sometimes suspected because of clustering of anomalies in areas of higher exposure. This highlights questions around spatial heterogeneity (cluster...

    Authors: Ben G Armstrong, Helen Dolk, Sam Pattenden, Martine Vrijheid, Maria Loane, Judith Rankin, Chris E Dunn, Chris Grundy, Lenore Abramsky, Patricia A Boyd, David Stone and Diana Wellesley

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2007 4:14

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  4. Content type: Editorial

    Health surveys are a very important component of the epidemiology toolbox, and play a critical role in gauging population health, especially in developing countries. Research on health survey methods, however,...

    Authors: Kristof Bostoen, Oleg O Bilukha, Bridget Fenn, Oliver W Morgan, Clarence C Tam, Annemarie ter Veen and Francesco Checchi

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2007 4:13

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  5. Content type: Analytic perspective

    Malnutrition prevalence and mortality rates are increasingly used as essential indicators to assess the severity of a crisis, to follow trends, and to guide decision-making, including allocation of funds. Alth...

    Authors: Claudine Prudhon and Paul B Spiegel

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2007 4:10

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  6. Content type: Analytic perspective

    In two-stage cluster surveys, the traditional method used in second-stage sampling (in which the first household in a cluster is selected) is time-consuming and may result in biased estimates of the indicator ...

    Authors: Rebecca F Grais, Angela MC Rose and Jean-Paul Guthmann

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2007 4:8

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  7. Content type: Methodology

    Geographical objectives and probabilistic methods are difficult to reconcile in a unique health survey. Probabilistic methods focus on individuals to provide estimates of a variable's prevalence with a certain...

    Authors: Julie Vallée, Marc Souris, Florence Fournet, Audrey Bochaton, Virginie Mobillion, Karine Peyronnie and Gérard Salem

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2007 4:6

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  8. Content type: Methodology

    Survey data are traditionally collected using pen-and-paper, with double data entry, comparison of entries and reconciliation of discrepancies before data cleaning can commence. We used Personal Digital Assist...

    Authors: Kizito Shirima, Oscar Mukasa, Joanna Armstrong Schellenberg, Fatuma Manzi, Davis John, Adiel Mushi, Mwifadhi Mrisho, Marcel Tanner, Hassan Mshinda and David Schellenberg

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2007 4:5

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  9. Content type: Methodology

    Accurate tools for assessing household wealth are essential for many health studies in developing countries. Household survey and participatory wealth ranking (PWR) are two approaches to generate data for this...

    Authors: James R Hargreaves, Linda A Morison, John SS Gear, Julia C Kim, Mzamani B Makhubele, John DH Porter, Charlotte Watts and Paul M Pronyk

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2007 4:4

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  10. Content type: Analytic perspective

    The study of inequities in health is a critical component of monitoring government obligations to uphold the rights of Indigenous Peoples. In Aotearoa/New Zealand the indigenous Māori population has a substant...

    Authors: Bridget Robson, Gordon Purdie, Fiona Cram and Shirley Simmonds

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2007 4:3

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  11. Content type: Analytic perspective

    An association between exposure to a risk factor and age-at-onset of disease may reflect an effect on the rate of disease occurrence or an acceleration of the disease process. The difference in age-at-onset ar...

    Authors: Jemma B Wilk and Timothy L Lash

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2007 4:1

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  12. Content type: Analytic perspective

    A landmark randomised trial of male circumcision (MC) in Orange Farm, South Africa recently showed a large and significant reduction in risk of HIV infection, reporting MC effectiveness of 61% (95% CI: 34%–77%...

    Authors: Kamal Desai, Marie-Claude Boily, Geoff P Garnett, Benoît R Mâsse, Stephen Moses and Robert C Bailey

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2006 3:19

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  13. Content type: Analytic perspective

    Public health research and practice is faced with three problems: 1) a focus on disease instead of health, 2) consideration of risk factor/disease relationships one at a time, and 3) attention to individuals w...

    Authors: Nancy L Fleischer, Ann M Weber, Susan Gruber, Karina Z Arambula, Maya Mascarenhas, Jessica A Frasure, Constance Wang and S Leonard Syme

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2006 3:18

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  14. Content type: Methodology

    There are several reasons that someone might be diagnosed with more than one primary cancer. The aim of this analysis was to determine combinations of cancer types that occur more often than expected. The expe...

    Authors: Chris D Bajdik, Zenaida U Abanto, John J Spinelli, Angela Brooks-Wilson and Richard P Gallagher

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2006 3:17

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  15. Content type: Analytic perspective

    The recent Immigration Bill debate in the United States Congress has again re-ignited the polemic regarding immigration policy. In this essay, I argue that disputes surrounding the legality of migrant workers ...

    Authors: Clarence C Tam

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2006 3:15

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  16. Content type: Commentary

    Modern public health strives for maximizing benefits for the highest number of people while protecting individual rights. Restrictions on individual rights are justified for two reasons-for the benefit of the ...

    Authors: Daniel A Salmon and Saad B Omer

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2006 3:13

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  17. Content type: Methodology

    Surprisingly little is known regarding the human mixing patterns relevant to the spread of close-contact infections, such as measles, influenza and meningococcal disease. This study aims to estimate the number...

    Authors: WJ Edmunds, G Kafatos, J Wallinga and JR Mossong

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2006 3:10

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  18. Content type: Methodology

    The goal of this paper is to analyze the stochastic dynamics of childhood infectious disease time series. We present an univariate time series analysis of pertussis, mumps, measles and rubella based on Box-Jen...

    Authors: Helen Trottier, Pierre Philippe and Roch Roy

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2006 3:9

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  19. Content type: Commentary

    In their commentary on my paper Phillips and Goodman suggested that counterfactual causality and considerations on causality like those by Bradford Hill are only "guideposts on the road to common sense". I arg...

    Authors: Michael Höfler

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2006 3:8

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  20. Content type: Analytic perspective

    Regression calibration as a method for handling measurement error is becoming increasingly well-known and used in epidemiologic research. However, the standard version of the method is not appropriate for expo...

    Authors: Ingvild Dalen, John P Buonaccorsi, Petter Laake, Anette Hjartåker and Magne Thoresen

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2006 3:6

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  21. Content type: Analytic perspective

    Immigration is increasing in Italy. In 2003, 2.6 million foreign citizens lived in the country; 52% were men and the majority were young adults who migrated for work. The purpose of this study was to investiga...

    Authors: Laura Cacciani, Giovanni Baglio, Lorenza Rossi, Enrico Materia, Maurizio Marceca, Salvatore Geraci, Angela Spinelli, John Osborn and Gabriella Guasticchi

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2006 3:4

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  22. Content type: Methodology

    Urban-rural comparisons are of limited relevance in examining the effects of urban migration in developing countries where urbanisation is due to growth of existing urban populations, expansion of urban bounda...

    Authors: Tanica Lyngdoh, Sanjay Kinra, Yoav Ben Shlomo, Srinath Reddy, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, George Davey Smith and Shah Ebrahim

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2006 3:2

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  23. Content type: Analytic perspective

    The epidemiologic literature is replete with conceptual discussions about causal inference, but little is known about how the causal criteria are applied in public health practice. The criteria for causal infe...

    Authors: Mark Parascandola, Douglas L Weed and Abhijit Dasgupta

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2006 3:1

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  24. Content type: Review

    A new scientific discipline arose in the late 20th century known as biodemography. When applied to aging, biodemography is the scientific study of common age patterns and causes of death observed among humans and...

    Authors: S Jay Olshansky, Mark Grant, Jacob Brody and Bruce A Carnes

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2005 2:10

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  25. Content type: Analytic perspective

    This review summarises theoretical studies attempting to assess the population impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) use on mortality and HIV incidence. We describe the key parameters that determine the impac...

    Authors: Rebecca F Baggaley, Neil M Ferguson and Geoff P Garnett

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2005 2:9

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  26. Content type: Analytic perspective

    Previous studies have assessed the validity of the observational study design by comparing results of studies using this design to results from randomized controlled trials. The present study examined design f...

    Authors: Arthur Hartz, Suzanne Bentler, Mary Charlton, Douglas Lanska, Yogita Butani, G Mustafa Soomro and Kjell Benson

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2005 2:8

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  27. Content type: Methodology

    Influenza-associated excess mortality is widely used to assess the severity of influenza epidemics. In Germany, however, it is not yet established as a routine component of influenza surveillance. We therefore...

    Authors: Phillip Zucs, Udo Buchholz, Walter Haas and Helmut Uphoff

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2005 2:6

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  28. Content type: Review

    Dengue is the most important arthropod-borne viral disease of public health significance. Compared with nine reporting countries in the 1950s, today the geographic distribution includes more than 100 countries...

    Authors: Debarati Guha-Sapir and Barbara Schimmer

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2005 2:1

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  29. Content type: Analytic perspective

    In sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS and violent conflict interact to shape population health and development in dramatic ways. HIV/AIDS can create conditions conducive to conflict. Conflict can affect the epidemio...

    Authors: Nancy B Mock, Sambe Duale, Lisanne F Brown, Ellen Mathys, Heather C O'Maonaigh, Nina KL Abul-Husn and Sterling Elliott

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2004 1:6

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  30. Content type: Editorial

    In this first special theme issue, Emerging Themes in Epidemiology publishes a collection of articles on the theme of Epidemiology in conflict. Violent conflict is an issue of great sensitivity within public heal...

    Authors: Clarence C Tam, Ben A Lopman, Olga Bornemisza and Egbert Sondorp

    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2004 1:5

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