Skip to main content

Articles

Page 4 of 5

  1. To date different vaginal gel microbicides have been evaluated in phase 2b/3 trials, but none have demonstrated effectiveness for preventing HIV infection. Failure to demonstrate effectiveness however does not...

    Authors: Benoît R Mâsse, Marie-Claude Boily, Dobromir Dimitrov and Kamal Desai
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2009 6:5
  2. West Nile virus (WNV) is currently the leading cause of arboviral-associated encephalitis in the U.S., and can lead to long-term neurologic sequelae. Improvements in dead bird specimen processing time, includi...

    Authors: Anna Veksler, Millicent Eidson and Igor Zurbenko
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2009 6:4
  3. Instrumental variable (IV) methods have been used in econometrics for several decades now, but have only recently been introduced into the epidemiologic research frameworks. Similarly, Mendelian randomization ...

    Authors: Ikechukwu U Ogbuanu, Hongmei Zhang and Wilfried Karmaus
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2009 6:3
  4. Comparing survival of patients with a single tumour and patients with multiple primaries poses different methodological problems. In population based studies, where we cannot rely on detailed clinical informat...

    Authors: Stefano Rosso, Fulvio Ricceri, Lea Terracini and Roberto Zanetti
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2009 6:2
  5. Because common diseases are caused by complex interactions among many genetic variants along with environmental risk factors, very large sample sizes are usually needed to detect such effects in case-control s...

    Authors: Ramal Moonesinghe, Quanhe Yang and Muin J Khoury
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:24
  6. Systematic reviews based on the critical appraisal of observational and analytic studies on HIV prevalence and risk factors for HIV transmission among men having sex with men are very useful for health care de...

    Authors: William CW Wong, Catherine SK Cheung and Graham J Hart
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:23
  7. In 2002, Norway experienced a large outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in hospitals with 231 confirmed cases. This fuelled intense public and professional debates on what were the causes and who were r...

    Authors: Bjørn G Iversen, Bjørn Hofmann and Preben Aavitsland
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:22
  8. Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health contain much that is of potential international interest. However, few non-Chinese speakers are acquainted with this literature. This art...

    Authors: Isaac CH Fung
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:20
  9. The economy of China continues to boom and so have its biomedical research and related publishing activities. Several so-called neglected tropical diseases that are most common in the developing world are stil...

    Authors: Qin Liu, Li-Guang Tian, Shu-Hua Xiao, Zhen Qi, Peter Steinmann, Tippi K Mak, Jürg Utzinger and Xiao-Nong Zhou
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:19
  10. It is well known that papers written in languages other than English have a great risk of being ignored simply because these languages are not accessible to the international scientific community. The objectiv...

    Authors: Mauricio L Barreto and Rita Barradas Barata
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:18
  11. There is a multiplicity of journals originating in Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (SSLAC) in the health sciences of relevance to the fields of epidemiology and publ...

    Authors: John R Williams, Annick Bórquez and María-Gloria Basáñez
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:17
  12. Epidemiology and public health are usually context-specific. Journals published in different languages and countries play a role both as sources of data and as channels through which evidence is incorporated i...

    Authors: Iacopo Baussano, Patrick Brzoska, Ugo Fedeli, Claudia Larouche, Oliver Razum and Isaac C-H Fung
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:16
  13. In the 20th century, Russian biomedical science experienced a decline from the blossom of the early years to a drastic state. Through the first decades of the USSR, it was transformed to suit the ideological requ...

    Authors: Vasiliy V Vlassov and Kirill D Danishevskiy
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:15
  14. The study provides the rationale, history and current status of the Index Medicus for the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region. The Index is unique in combining the geographic coverage of pee...

    Authors: Najeeb Al-Shorbaji
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:14
  15. Randomized trials are essential in assessing the effects of healthcare interventions and are a key component in systematic reviews of effectiveness. Searching for reports of randomized trials in databases is p...

    Authors: Carol Lefebvre, Anne Eisinga, Steve McDonald and Nina Paul
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:13
  16. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is severely affected by HIV/AIDS and conflict. Sexual violence as a weapon of war has been associated with concerns about heightened HIV incidence among women. Widespread rape by comba...

    Authors: Aranka Anema, Michel R Joffres, Edward Mills and Paul B Spiegel
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:11
  17. In 2004, Garcia-Berthou and Alcaraz published "Incongruence between test statistics and P values in medical papers," a critique of statistical errors that received a tremendous amount of attention. One of thei...

    Authors: Carl V Phillips, Richard F MacLehose and Jay S Kaufman
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:9
  18. Only four out of 31 completed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of HIV prevention strategies against sexual transmission have shown significant efficacy. Poor adherence may have contributed to the lack of ef...

    Authors: Helen A Weiss, Judith N Wasserheit, Ruanne V Barnabas, Richard J Hayes and Laith J Abu-Raddad
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:8
  19. Tu et al present an analysis of the equivalence of three paradoxes, namely, Simpson's, Lord's, and the suppression phenomena. They conclude that all three simply reiterate the occurrence of a change in the associ...

    Authors: Onyebuchi A Arah
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:5
  20. Epidemiological studies often require measures of socio-economic position (SEP). The application of principal components analysis (PCA) to data on asset-ownership is one popular approach to household SEP measu...

    Authors: Laura D Howe, James R Hargreaves and Sharon RA Huttly
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:3
  21. This article discusses three statistical paradoxes that pervade epidemiological research: Simpson's paradox, Lord's paradox, and suppression. These paradoxes have important implications for the interpretation of ...

    Authors: Yu-Kang Tu, David Gunnell and Mark S Gilthorpe
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2008 5:2
  22. The proportion of infant pertussis cases due to transmission from casual contact in the community has not been estimated since before the introduction of pertussis vaccines in the 1950s. This study aimed to es...

    Authors: Aaron M Wendelboe, Michael G Hudgens, Charles Poole and Annelies Van Rie
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2007 4:15
  23. Environmental pollution as a cause of congenital anomalies is sometimes suspected because of clustering of anomalies in areas of higher exposure. This highlights questions around spatial heterogeneity (cluster...

    Authors: Ben G Armstrong, Helen Dolk, Sam Pattenden, Martine Vrijheid, Maria Loane, Judith Rankin, Chris E Dunn, Chris Grundy, Lenore Abramsky, Patricia A Boyd, David Stone and Diana Wellesley
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2007 4:14
  24. Health surveys are a very important component of the epidemiology toolbox, and play a critical role in gauging population health, especially in developing countries. Research on health survey methods, however,...

    Authors: Kristof Bostoen, Oleg O Bilukha, Bridget Fenn, Oliver W Morgan, Clarence C Tam, Annemarie ter Veen and Francesco Checchi
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2007 4:13
  25. Malnutrition prevalence and mortality rates are increasingly used as essential indicators to assess the severity of a crisis, to follow trends, and to guide decision-making, including allocation of funds. Alth...

    Authors: Claudine Prudhon and Paul B Spiegel
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2007 4:10
  26. In two-stage cluster surveys, the traditional method used in second-stage sampling (in which the first household in a cluster is selected) is time-consuming and may result in biased estimates of the indicator ...

    Authors: Rebecca F Grais, Angela MC Rose and Jean-Paul Guthmann
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2007 4:8
  27. Geographical objectives and probabilistic methods are difficult to reconcile in a unique health survey. Probabilistic methods focus on individuals to provide estimates of a variable's prevalence with a certain...

    Authors: Julie Vallée, Marc Souris, Florence Fournet, Audrey Bochaton, Virginie Mobillion, Karine Peyronnie and Gérard Salem
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2007 4:6
  28. Survey data are traditionally collected using pen-and-paper, with double data entry, comparison of entries and reconciliation of discrepancies before data cleaning can commence. We used Personal Digital Assist...

    Authors: Kizito Shirima, Oscar Mukasa, Joanna Armstrong Schellenberg, Fatuma Manzi, Davis John, Adiel Mushi, Mwifadhi Mrisho, Marcel Tanner, Hassan Mshinda and David Schellenberg
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2007 4:5
  29. Accurate tools for assessing household wealth are essential for many health studies in developing countries. Household survey and participatory wealth ranking (PWR) are two approaches to generate data for this...

    Authors: James R Hargreaves, Linda A Morison, John SS Gear, Julia C Kim, Mzamani B Makhubele, John DH Porter, Charlotte Watts and Paul M Pronyk
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2007 4:4
  30. The study of inequities in health is a critical component of monitoring government obligations to uphold the rights of Indigenous Peoples. In Aotearoa/New Zealand the indigenous Māori population has a substant...

    Authors: Bridget Robson, Gordon Purdie, Fiona Cram and Shirley Simmonds
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2007 4:3
  31. An association between exposure to a risk factor and age-at-onset of disease may reflect an effect on the rate of disease occurrence or an acceleration of the disease process. The difference in age-at-onset ar...

    Authors: Jemma B Wilk and Timothy L Lash
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2007 4:1
  32. A landmark randomised trial of male circumcision (MC) in Orange Farm, South Africa recently showed a large and significant reduction in risk of HIV infection, reporting MC effectiveness of 61% (95% CI: 34%–77%...

    Authors: Kamal Desai, Marie-Claude Boily, Geoff P Garnett, Benoît R Mâsse, Stephen Moses and Robert C Bailey
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2006 3:19
  33. Public health research and practice is faced with three problems: 1) a focus on disease instead of health, 2) consideration of risk factor/disease relationships one at a time, and 3) attention to individuals w...

    Authors: Nancy L Fleischer, Ann M Weber, Susan Gruber, Karina Z Arambula, Maya Mascarenhas, Jessica A Frasure, Constance Wang and S Leonard Syme
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2006 3:18
  34. There are several reasons that someone might be diagnosed with more than one primary cancer. The aim of this analysis was to determine combinations of cancer types that occur more often than expected. The expe...

    Authors: Chris D Bajdik, Zenaida U Abanto, John J Spinelli, Angela Brooks-Wilson and Richard P Gallagher
    Citation: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2006 3:17